pubmed > TP53 > tp53 apc

Genomic Sequencing and Insight into Clinical Heterogeneity and Prognostic Pathway Genes in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
An understanding of signaling pathways has not been fully incorporated into prognostication and therapeutic options. We evaluated the hypothesis that information about cancer-related signaling pathways can improve prognostic stratification and explain some of the clinical heterogeneity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We analyzed prognostic relevance of signaling pathways in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) from 2004-2017, and clinical actionability of gene alterations in 7 signaling pathways: p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, TGFβ, Notch, and cell cycle. To assess the wide applicability, the results were validated in an external retrospective cohort including patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Of 579 patients, the numbers of patients with pathway alterations were as follows: p53, n = 420 (72.5%); Wnt, 340 (58.7%); RTK-RAS, 333 (57.5%); PI3K, 110 (19.0%); TGFβ, 65 (11.2%); Notch, 41 (7.1%); and cell cycle, 15 (2.6%). More than 80% of alterations in each pathway occurred in a single predominant gene TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and RB1 in p53, Wnt, RTK-RAS, PI3K, Notch, and cell cycle pathways, respectively. Alterations of 4 pathways (p53, RTK-RAS, TGFβ, and Notch) and corresponding predominant genes (TP53, RAS/BRAF, SMAD4, and FBXW7) were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), and alterations of Wnt pathway (APC) were associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 3.8 years. Similarly, in the external cohort, alterations of p53 (TP53) and RTK-RAS (RAS/BRAF) were significantly associated with worse OS, whereas alteration of Wnt (APC) was associated with better OS in the median follow-up duration of 2.6 years. Genomic sequencing provides insights into clinical heterogeneity and permits finer prognostic stratification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Publication Date: 2021-06-11
Journal: Journal of the American College of Surgeons

Karyotypic complexity, TP53 pathogenic variants, and increased number of variants on Next-Generation Sequencing are associated with disease progression in a North American Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma cohort.
Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy without known characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities. Recurrent mutations in TP53, APC, and epigenetic and histone-modifying genes have been identified in North American ATLL. Their roles in disease progression are not yet fully elucidated. We studied the cytogenetic and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) findings of the North American ATLL cohort at our institution and compared the findings with Japanese and other North American cohorts. We also analyzed the genetic variants in TP53, APC, and histone-modifying genes and investigated the impact of their mutations on the number of mutations via NGS in ATLL. Cases with more than 6 chromosomal breaks (n = 13) had significantly shorter overall survival compared to cases with fewer chromosomal breaks (n = 7) (P = .0007). Cases with breaks on chromosome 3q (n = 4) exhibited worse survival compared to the rest of the cases (n = 16) (P = .012). Chromosomal abnormalities on 3q, 14q, 1q, 1p, and 17q are likely primary changes in ATLL based on frequency and association with prognosis. The average number of mutations via NGS was significantly higher in cases with mutations in TP53 (n = 8) (P = .020) as well as APC (n = 6) (P = .024) compared to cases without mutations in these genes. All TP53 variants were pathogenic missense and truncating mutations in COSMIC database. Cytogenetic and NGS methods are useful tools to monitor disease progression in indolent ATLL and assess prognosis in aggressive ATLL.
Publication Date: 2021-05-15
Journal: International journal of laboratory hematology

Recommendations for Specimen and Therapy Selection in Colorectal Cancer.
Next-generation sequencing has emerged as a clinical tool for the identification of actionable mutations to triage advanced colorectal cancer patients for targeted therapies. The literature is conflicted as to whether primaries or their metastases should be selected for sequencing. Some authors suggest that either site may be sequenced, whereas others recommend sequencing the primary, the metastasis, or even both tumors. Here, we address this issue head on with a meta-analysis and provide for the first time a set of sensible recommendations to make this determination. From our own series, we include 43 tumors from 13 patients including 14 primaries, 10 regional lymph node metastases, 17 distant metastases, and two anastomotic recurrences sequenced using the 50 gene Ion AmpliSeq cancer NGS panel v2. Based on our new cohort and a meta-analysis, we found that ~ 77% of patient-matched primary-metastatic pairs have identical alterations in these 50 cancer-associated genes. Low tumor cellularity, tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, treatment status, sample quality, and/or size of the sequencing panel accounted for a proportion of the differential detection of mutations at primary and metastatic sites. The therapeutic implications of the most frequently discordant alterations (TP53, APC, PIK3CA, and SMAD4) are discussed. Our meta-analysis indicates that a subset of patients who fail initial therapy may benefit from sequencing of additional sites to identify new actionable genomic abnormalities not present in the initial analysis. Evidence-based recommendations are proposed.
Publication Date: 2021-04-26
Journal: Oncology and therapy

Multi gene mutation signatures in colorectal cancer patients: predict for the diagnosis, pathological classification, staging and prognosis.
Identifying gene mutation signatures will enable a better understanding for the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and provide some potential biomarkers for clinical practice. Currently, however, there is still few effective biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognostic judgment in CRC patients. The purpose was to identify novel mutation signatures for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC. Clinical information of 531 CRC patients and their sequencing data were downloaded from TCGA database (training group), and 53 clinical patients were collected and sequenced with targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology (validation group). The relationship between the mutation genes and the diagnosis, pathological type, stage and prognosis of CRC were compared to construct signatures for CRC, and then analyzed their relationship with RNA expression, immunocyte infiltration and tumor microenvironment (TME). Mutations of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF and ATM covered 97.55% of TCGA population and 83.02% validation patients. Moreover, 57.14% validation samples and 22.06% TCGA samples indicated that patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma tended to have BRAF mutation, but no TP53 mutation. Mutations of TP53, PIK3CA, FAT4, FMN2 and TRRAP had a remarkable difference between I-II and III-IV stage patients (P < 0.0001). Besides, the combination of PIK3CA, LRP1B, FAT4 and ROS1 formed signatures for the prognosis and survival of CRC patients. The mutations of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF, ATM, PIK3CA, FAT4, FMN2, TRRAP, LRP1B, and ROS1 formed the signatures for predicting diagnosis and prognosis of CRC. Among them, mutation of TP53, APC, KRAS, BRAF, ATM, PIK3CA, FAT4 and TRRAP significantly reduced their RNA expression level. Stromal score, immune score and ESTIMATE score were lower in patients with TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA mutation compared non-mutation patients. All the 11 gene mutations affected the distributions of immune cells. This study constructed gene mutation signatures for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in CRC, and proved that their mutations affected RNA expression levels, TME and immunocyte infiltration. Our results put forward further insights into the genotype of CRC.
Publication Date: 2021-04-11
Journal: BMC cancer

KRAS/GNAS-testing by highly sensitive deep targeted next generation sequencing improves the endoscopic ultrasound-guided workup of suspected mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cysts or dilated pancreatic ducts are often found by cross-sectional imaging, but only mucinous lesions can become malignant. Therefore, distinction between mucinous and non-mucinous lesions is crucial for adequate patient management. We performed a prospective study including targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of cell-free DNA in the diagnostic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided workup. Pancreatic cyst(s) or main duct fluid obtained by EUS-guided FNA was analysed by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytology and deep targeted NGS of 14 known gastrointestinal cancer genes (AKT1, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, GNAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, SMAD4, TP53, APC) with a limit of detection down to variant allele frequency of 0.01%. Results were correlated to histopathology and clinical follow-up. One hundred and thirteen patients with pancreatic cyst(s) and/or a dilated pancreatic main duct (≥5 mm) were screened. Sixty-six patients had to be excluded, mainly due to inoperability or small cyst size (≤10 mm). Forty-seven patients were enrolled for further analysis. A final diagnosis was available in 27 cases including 8 negative controls. In 43/47 (91.5%) of patients a KRAS- and/or GNAS-mutation was diagnosed by NGS. 27.0% of the KRAS-mutated and 10.0% of the GNAS-mutated lesions harbored multiple mutations. KRAS/GNAS-testing by NGS, cytology, and CEA had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.7/100%, 38.1/100%, and 42.1/75.0%, respectively. KRAS/GNAS-testing was significantly superior to CEA (P = .0209) and cytology (P = .0016). In conclusion, KRAS/GNAS-testing by deep targeted NGS is a suitable method to distinguish mucinous from non-mucinous pancreatic lesions, suggesting its usage as a single diagnostic test. Results must be confirmed in a larger cohort.
Publication Date: 2021-03-10
Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer

Sum of High-Risk Gene Mutation (SHGM): A Novel Attempt to Assist Differential Diagnosis for Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Benign Adenoma, Based on Detection of Mutations of Nine Target Genes.
There has been no research on applying gene detection to differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). We attempted to explore a novel auxiliary method for differential diagnosis between ACC with benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), based on mutations of target genes in tissues. Nine genes were chosen as target genes, including TP53, CTNNB1, ARMC5, PRKAR1A, ZNRF3, RB1, APC, MEN1, and RPL22. Exons sequencing of target genes were performed in 98 cases of tissue samples by FastTarget technology, including 41 ACC tissues, 32 ACA tissues, and 25 normal adrenal gland tissues. Significant mutations were detected and identified, and the clinical information was collected, for further comparative analysis and application to assist differential diagnosis of ACC. We identified 132 significant gene mutations and 227 significant mutation sites in 37 ACC tissues, much more than ACA and normal adrenal gland tissues. Mutation rates of 6 genes in ACC tissues were obviously higher than ACA tissues, including ZNRF3, ARMC5, TP53, APC, RB1, and PRKAR1A, regarded as high-risk genes. The sum of mutated high-risk genes detected in each sample was denominated sum of high-risk gene mutation (SHGM), and the rates of SHGM > 0 and SHGM > 1 in ACC tissues were 73.0% and 62.2%, respectively, both obviously higher than those in ACA tissues, with significant statistic differences. Especially for 8 cases of ACC with diameter < 5 cm, SHGM > 0 and SHGM > 1 were found in 6 samples (75%) and 4 samples (50%), respectively. However, no relevance was found between SHGM and clinical characteristics of ACC. We identified 6 high-risk genes in ACC tissues, with significantly higher mutation rates than ACA or normal adrenal gland tissues. The sum of mutated high-risk genes detected in ACC tissues was denominated SHGM, which was potential to assist the differential diagnosis of ACC with ACA, especially for the small-size ACC.
Publication Date: 2021-02-11
Journal: Biochemical genetics

Neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed neuroendocrine‒non-neuroendocrine neoplasm of the stomach: a clinicopathological and exome sequencing study.
The gene mutation profiles of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular pathology of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and mixed neuroendocrine‒non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) of the stomach. Surgical cases of gastric NEC (n = 7) and MiNEN (n = 6) were examined by clinical review, immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis and whole-exome sequencing. NEC cases consisted of small- (n = 2) and large-cell types (n = 4). All cases of MiNEN were histologically composed of large-cell type NEC and tubular adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing analysis detected recurrent mutations in TP53 in 8 cases (62%), and they were more frequently observed in MiNEN than in NEC (100% vs. 29%). Frameshift mutations of APC were observed in two cases of MiNEN. One case of large-cell type NEC had a frameshift mutation with loss of heterozygosity in RB1. The other mutated genes (e.g., ARID1 and KRAS) were detected in a single case each. A high level of MSI was confirmed in one case of MiNEN, which harbored mutations in two well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET)-related genes (MEN1 and ATRX1). In cases of MiNEN, two histological components shared mutations in TP53, APC and ZNF521, whereas alterations in CTNNB1, KMT2C, PTEN and SPEN were observed in neuroendocrine components only. In conclusion, TP53 is a single, frequently mutated gene in gastric NEC and MiNEN, and alterations in other genes are less common, resembling the mutation profiles of gastric adenocarcinomas. Gene mutations frequently observed in well-differentiated NET were uncommon but not entirely exclusive.
Publication Date: 2020-12-29
Journal: Human pathology

Prevalence and spectrum of pathogenic germline variants in intestinal and pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.
Ampullary cancer may occur as a component of hereditary cancer syndromes. Mutations in inherited cancer susceptibility genes play a therapeutic role and its knowledge in ampullary cancer is lacking. Thirty-seven cases of ampullary carcinoma were subjected to tumor-normal whole exome sequencing with mean coverage of 100X (blood) and 200X (tumor). Data were analyzed and correlated with intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation. There were 22 intestinal, 13 pancreatobiliary and 2 cases of mixed differentiation. One hundred and forty-three germline variations with at least >1 pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) across 83 genes were found in 36 of 37 patients. Twelve genes (14.5 %) showed >3, 20 genes (24.1 %) showed two and 51 genes (61.4 %) showed one PGVs. Intestinal differentiation showed higher PGVs (117 variants, 73 genes) than pancreatobiliary differentiation (85 variants, 62 genes). PGVs in ERCC5, MEN1, MSH3, CHEK1, TP53, APC, FANCA, ERBB2, BRCA1, BRCA2, RTEL1, HNF1A and PTCH1 were seen in >50 % of cases. Nine genes harbored somatic second hits in 14 cases. PGVs in DNA damage-repair, homologous recombination repair, TP53 transcriptional regulation, DNA double stranded breaks, cell cycle and nucleotide excision repair genes were seen in all cases of intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation, while DNA mismatch repair genes were found in 81.8 % of intestinal and 84.6 % of pancreatobiliary cancers. Functional pathway analysis showed that DNA damage-repair, double stranded break repair, mismatch repair, homologous recombination repair and TP53 transcriptional regulation genes were altered in both while nucleotide-excision repair was significantly mutated in intestinal type and cell-cycle genes in pancreatobiliary type (p < 0.05). This study reports spectrum of PGVs in intestinal and pancreatobiliary differentiation of ampullary carcinoma at higher frequency through whole exome sequencing. PGVs were most frequently found in DNA repair genes. Detecting PGVs through tumor-normal sequencing may identify therapeutically actionable and double-hit mutations that can guide towards appropriate management.
Publication Date: 2020-12-21
Journal: Pathology, research and practice

Mutational profiles associated with resistance in patients with BRAFV600E mutant colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab and encorafenib +/- binimetinib or alpelisib.
Treatment strategies inhibiting BRAF in combination with EGFR have been developed in patients with BRAF This was a cohort study on genetic alterations in patients with BRAF In total, 37 patients were included in this cohort. Genetic alterations in EGFR and in PIK3CA are associated with non-response. A greater fraction of non-responders (75%) versus responders (46%) had at least one genetic alteration in other genes than TP53, APC or BRAF. Secondary resistance mutations (n = 16 patients) were observed most frequently in the PI3K pathway (n = 6) and in receptor tyrosine kinases (n = 4), leading to increased upstream signalling. Genetic alterations in the PI3K and upstream receptor tyrosine kinases were mostly associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance. By understanding these alterations, simultaneous or alternating treatments with targeted inhibitors might improve response duration.
Publication Date: 2020-11-19
Journal: British journal of cancer

Germline Profiling and Molecular Characterization of Early Onset Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
Early onset colorectal cancer (EO CRC) is a heterogeneous colorectal cancer subtype with obvious hereditary tendencies and increasing incidence. We sought to determine the susceptibility genes and molecular characteristics of EO CRC. 330 EO metastatic CRC (mCRC) (≤55 years) and 110 average-onset (AO) mCRC patients (>55 years) were enrolled. Capture-based targeted sequencing was performed on tumor tissue and paired white blood cells using a sequencing panel of 520 genes. The association between molecular alterations and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Of the 330 EO mCRC patients, 31 carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline mutations, with 16 of them diagnosed with lynch syndrome. Fifteen patients had germline mutations in non-mismatch repair genes, including four in MUTHY, three in RAD50, one in TP53, and eight in other genes. Twenty-nine genes were recurrently mutated in EO mCRC, including TP53, APC, KRAS, SMAD4, and BRCA2. The majority of genomic alterations were comparable between EO and AO mCRC. EO mCRC patients were more likely to have a high tumor mutation burden (p < 0.05). RNF43, RBM10, TSC, and BRAF V600E mutations were more commonly observed in EO mCRC, while APC, ASXL1, DNMT3B, and MET genes were more commonly altered in AO patients. At the pathway level, the WNT pathway was the only differentially mutated pathway between EO and AO mCRC (p < 0.0001). The wild-type WNT pathway (p = 0.0017) and mutated TGF- Approximately one in 10 EO mCRC was associated with hereditary tumors. The spectrum of somatic alterations was largely comparable between EO and AO mCRC with several notable differences.
Publication Date: 2020-11-17
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

Retrospective investigation of hereditary syndromes in patients with medulloblastoma in a single institution.
To investigate the incidence rate of hereditary disease in patients with medulloblastoma. The genetic reports of 129 patients with medulloblastoma from January 2016 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. A panel sequence of 39 genes (Genetron Health) were used for all patients to evaluate the tumor subgroup. Four genes (TP53, APC, PTCH1, SUFU) were screened to routinely rule out germline mutation. Five patients (3.9%) were found with hereditary disease, and all belonged to the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup. Two patients were retrospectively diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz disease with germline PTCH1 and SUFU mutations. One patient (PTCH1 mutation) accepted whole craniospinal irradiation and had scalp nevoid basal cell carcinoma 5 years later. The other patient (SUFU mutation) accepted chemotherapy and had local tumor relapse 1 year later. Three patients were diagnosed with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and carried the TP53 mutation; all three patients died. One of the patients had bone osteosarcoma, while all three had early tumor relapse. Patients with SHH medulloblastoma should routinely undergo genetic testing. We propose that whole genome, whole exome sequence, or custom-designed panel-targeted exome sequencing should be performed.
Publication Date: 2020-09-16
Journal: Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery

Somatic mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with the epigenetic modifications.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) mostly arises from progressive accumulation of somatic mutations within cells. Most commonly mutated genes like TP53, APC and KRAS can promote survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Although the molecular alterations and landscape of some specific mutations in CRC are well known, the presence of a somatic mutation signature related to genomic regions and epigenetic markers remain unclear. To find the signatures from a random distribution of somatic mutations in CRCs, we carried out enrichment analysis in different genomic regions and identified peaks of epigenetic markers. We validated that the mutation frequency in miRNA is dramatically higher than in flanking genomic regions. Moreover, we observed that somatic mutations in CRC and colon cancer cell lines are significantly enriched in CTCF binding sites. We also found these mutations are enriched for H3K27me3 in both normal sigmoid colon and colon cancer cell lines. Taken together, our findings suggest that there are some common somatic mutations signatures which provide new directions to study CRC.
Publication Date: 2020-09-01
Journal: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

Single-nucleotide variants, tumour mutational burden and microsatellite instability in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: Next-generation sequencing results of the FIRE-3 trial.
Molecular biomarkers and primary tumour sidedness guide treatment decisions in metastatic colorectal cancer. Comprehensive molecular profiling aims to identify targetable alterations and measure tumour mutational burden (TMB) to enable precision oncology. FoundationOne® next-generation sequencing identified single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), copy number alterations, high TMB (TMB-H) and high-grade microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in patients treated in the FIRE-3 trial. Data were correlated with objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Three hundred seventy-three (49.6%) of 752 patients provided material for this analysis. Frequent SNVs included TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, SMAD4 and FBXW7. KRAS, BRAF V600E and SMAD4 mutations were confirmed as prognostic biomarkers by logistic penalised regression for ORR. OS was significantly longer in patients with SMAD4 wild-type (WT) tumours than in those with SMAD4-mutated tumours (hazard ratio = 0.59 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.34-1.01], p = 0.05), with a higher probability of ORR [odds ratio, SMAD4 SNV versus WT = 0.32 [95% CI = 0.10-0.98], p = 0.05] when treated with cetuximab. MSI-H (30.0%, p = 0.03) and TMB-H (17.3%, p = 0.003) tumours were enriched by FBXW7 mutations. Numerically lower ORR, OS and PFS were observed in MSI-H tumours. RAS, BRAF V600E and SMAD4 mutations were identified as poor prognostic biomarkers in patients of the FIRE-3 trial, whereas improved outcome was observed for BRAF non-V600E mutation. SMAD4 mutation might provide predictive relevance for cetuximab efficacy. MSI-H tumours showed numerically lower ORR, OS and PFS.
Publication Date: 2020-08-19
Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study.
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma. Detailed clinical data were collected, and all cases were examined using targeted next-generation sequencing. On the basis of the literature, the first mutated gene in these tumors was reported to be KRAS in 11.3% of cases, followed by TERT promoter mutations in 28.5%. In addition to KRAS and TERT, other genes were also found to be frequently mutated in primary bladder adenocarcinoma, including TP53, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, FBXW7, IDH2, and RB1. In our series, the most frequent gene mutations in primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas were as follows: TP53 (56%); BRCA2, KMT2B (both 33%); NOTCH2, KDR, ARID1B, POLE, PTEN, KRAS (all 28%); in urachal enteric adenocarcinoma they were as follows: TP53 (86%); PTEN, NOTCH (both 43%); in primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas they were as follows: KRAS, GRIN2A, AURKB (all 67%); and, in intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma, they were as follows: APC, PRKDC (both 60%); ROS1, ATM, KMT2D (all 50%). No specific mutational pattern was identified using cluster analysis for any of the groups. Herein, we describe the pathologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns traditionally used in the differential diagnoses of glandular lesions of the bladder in routine surgical pathology. We outline the mutational landscape of these lesions as an aggregate of published data with additional data from our cohort. Although diagnostically not discriminatory, we document that the most common genetic alterations shared between these glandular neoplasms include TP53, APC (in the Wnt pathway), and KRAS (in the MAPK pathway) mutations.
Publication Date: 2020-06-11
Journal: Advances in anatomic pathology

Circulating Tumor DNA Is Capable of Monitoring the Therapeutic Response and Resistance in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Combined Target and Chemotherapy.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly lethal disease worldwide. The majority of patients receiving targeted therapy or chemotherapy develop drug resistance, while its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) exhibited the potential in identifying gene variations and monitoring drug resistance in CRC treatment. In this study, we monitored the ctDNA mutational changes in advanced CRC patients underwent first-line therapy with bevacizumab and cetuximab combined with chemotherapy. The mutation spectrum of 43 patients was established by a 605-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. The baseline measurement shows that genes with the highest mutation frequency were TP53 (74%), APC (58%), KRAS (40%), SYNE1 (33%), LRP1B (23%), TOP1 (23%), and PIK3CA (21%). Mutations in TP53, APC, and KRAS were detected in 29 paired plasma and tissue samples with the consistency of 81, 67, and 42%, respectively. Clinically targetable gene mutations, such as APC, RNF43, SMAD4, BRAD1, KRAS, RAF1, and TP53, were also identified in ctDNA. The overall consistency between ctDNA and tissue samples was 54.6%. Alleviation of mutational burden in BRAF, KRAS, AMER1, and other major driving genes was observed following the first-line therapy. Patients with KRAS and TP53 mutations in tissues appeared to benefit more than the wild-type counterpart. The dynamic change of plasma mutation status was consistent with the tissue tumor burden and was closely correlated with disease progression. In conclusion, ctDNA monitoring is a useful method for molecular genotyping of colorectal cancer patients. Dynamic changes in resistance can be sensitively monitored by gene variation status, which potentially helps to develop treatment strategy.
Publication Date: 2020-04-23
Journal: Frontiers in oncology

Rectal cancer sub-clones respond differentially to neoadjuvant therapy.
Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery but patient responses to neoadjuvant treatment are variable. We have shown that rectal tumors are comprised of multiple genetically distinct sub-clones. Unique sub-clones within tumors may harbor mutations which contribute to inter-patient variation in response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Analysis of the influence of nCRT on the extent and nature of intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancer may provide insights into mechanisms of resistance. Locally advanced rectal cancer patients underwent pre-treatment biopsies. At the time of surgery, tissue from the treated tumor was obtained and analyzed. Pre- and post-treatment specimens were subjected to whole exome and confirmatory deep sequencing for somatic mutations. Copy number variation was assessed using OncoScan SNP arrays. Genomic data were analyzed using PyClone to identify sub-clonal tumor population following nCRT. Alterations that persisted or were enriched in the post-treatment tumor specimen following nCRT were defined for each patient. Thirty-two samples were obtained from ten patients. PyClone identified 2 to 10 genetic sub-clones per tumor. Substantial changes in the proportions of individual sub-clones in pre- versus post-treatment tumor material were found in all patients. Resistant sub-clones recurrently contained mutations in TP53, APC, ABCA13, MUC16, and THSD4. Recurrent copy number variation was observed across multiple chromosome regions after nCRT. Pathway analysis including variant alleles and copy number changes associated with resistant sub-clones revealed significantly altered pathways, especially those linked to the APC and TP53 genes, which were the two most frequently mutated genes. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity is evident in pre-treatment rectal cancer. Following treatment, sub-clonal populations are selectively modified and enrichment of a subset of pre-treatment sub-clones is seen. Further studies are needed to define recurrent alterations at diagnosis that may contribute to resistance to nCRT.
Publication Date: 2019-09-16
Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

Interactions of multiple gene alterations in colorectal liver metastases.
The advancements in next generation sequencing have expanded the information available in clinical practice. Alterations of TP53, APC, RAS, PIK3CA, and SMAD4 are present in more than 10% of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Of these genes, TP53, RAS and SMAD4 were associated with worse survival in patients undergoing CLM resection. Testing multiple gene alterations provides a more precise prognosis for patients undergoing CLM resection and may be useful for better clinical decision making.
Publication Date: 2019-09-11
Journal: Chinese clinical oncology