Clinicopathologic and Molecular Characteristics of Gastrointestinal MiNENs.
A mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is a recently defined entity that comprises a neuroendocrine tumor (NEN) component and a non-neuroendocrine tumor (nNEN) component. As MiNEN is a recently defined entity, its molecular nature is not well known. Here, we evaluated the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of gastrointestinal (GI) MiNENs.
We performed a genomic analysis of 31 samples from 12 GI MiNEN cases using next-generation sequencing. We examined the primary NEN and nNEN components, as well as the metastatic NENs and nNENs. The relationships between the clinical tumor features (component, location, and grade) and their molecular characteristics were examined.
The 12 MiNENs included in the study were found in the stomach (n=10), distal rectum (n=1), and anus (n=1). Primary MiNENs that had NENs as the major component showed a worse clinical outcome than those that had nNENs as the major component. All distant metastatic tumors originating from MiNENs were NENs. In addition, NENs generally carried 1.5 times more gene mutations and copy number variations than nNENs. The ATRX gene deletion and TP53 gene mutation were the most common variants in both components of GI MiNENs.
We have revealed the detailed clinicopathologic and molecular findings with distinguishable alterations of GI MiNENs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the ATRX gene deletion in GI MiNENs. The molecular characteristics of GI MiNENs could provide clues to the pathogenic origin and progression of GI MiNENs.
Publication Date: 2021-08-24
Journal: Frontiers in oncology
Clinical significance of TP53 mutations in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients have a poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the impact of TP53 gene mutations on prognosis of ATL treated in different ways. Among 177 patients, we identified 47 single nucleotide variants or insertion-deletions (SNVs/indels) of the TP53 gene in 37 individuals. TP53 copy number variations (CNVs) were observed in 38 patients. Altogether, 67 of 177 patients harboured TP53 SNVs/indels or TP53 CNVs, and were categorized as having TP53 mutations. In the entire cohort, median survival of patients with and without TP53 mutations was 1·0 and 6·7 years respectively (P < 0·001). After allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), median survival of patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 29) TP53 mutations was 0·4 years and not reached respectively (P = 0·001). For patients receiving mogamulizumab without allogeneic HSCT, the median survival from the first dose of antibody in patients with TP53 mutations (n = 27) was only 0·9 years, but 5·1 years in those without (n = 42; P < 0·001). Thus, TP53 mutations are associated with unfavourable prognosis of ATL, regardless of treatment strategy. The establishment of alternative modalities to overcome the adverse impact of TP53 mutations in patients with ATL is required.
Publication Date: 2021-08-19
Journal: British journal of haematology
Spontaneous and inherited TP53 genetic alterations.
The p53 protein is a transcription factor that prevents tumors from developing. In spontaneous and inherited cancers there are many different missense mutations in the DNA binding domain of the TP53 gene that contributes to tumor formation. These mutations produce a wide distribution in the transcriptional capabilities of the mutant p53 proteins with over four logs differences in the efficiencies of forming cancers in many diverse tissue types. These inherited and spontaneous TP53 mutations produce proteins that interact with both genetic and epigenetic cellular modifiers of p53 function and their inherited polymorphisms to produce a large number of diverse phenotypes in individual patients. This manuscript reviews these variables and discusses how the combinations of TP53 genetic alterations interact with genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic alterations, and environmental factors to begin predicting and modifying patient outcomes and provide a better understanding for new therapeutic opportunities.
Publication Date: 2021-08-15
HPV-negative Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Cervix With Special Focus on Intraepithelial Precursor Lesions.
Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized human papilloma virus (HPV)-independent invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without recognizing the existence of precursor lesions. This is a detailed characterization of 3 preinvasive lesions and 6 invasive SCC negative for HPV-DNA (32 genotypes), HPV-mRNA (14 genotypes) and genomic HPV sequencing. We evaluated histologic features, expression of p16ink4a, p53, CK7, and CK17, aberrations in 50 cancer genes and chromosomal copy number variations. HPV-negative preinvasive lesions were extensive basaloid or highly differentiated keratinizing intraepithelial proliferations of 3 to 20 cell layers thickness, partly with prominent cervical gland involvement. Overall, 2/3 intraepithelial lesions and the in situ component of 1/6 SCC showed p16ink4a block staining, while 1/6 in situ component revealed heterogenous p16ink4a staining. All invasive components of keratinizing SCC were p16ink4a-negative. Preinvasive and invasive SCC showed inconsistent CK7 and CK17 staining. Nuclear p53 overexpression was restricted to the TP53 gene mutated SCC. The highly vascularized peritumoral stroma showed a dense inflammatory infiltrate including plasma cells and intratumoral and peritumoral eosinophilic granulocytes. Inconsistent somatic gene mutations (PIK3CA, STK11, TP53, SMARC2B, and GNAS) occurred predominantly in nonhotspot locations at low mutational frequency in 3/6 SCC. Consistent aberrations included the pathogenic (angiogenic) germline polymorphism Q472H in the KDR gene (7/9 patients), and chromosome 3q gains (4/9 patients). In conclusion, HPV-negative intraepithelial cervical precancerous lesions exist, either as highly differentiated keratinized intraepithelial proliferations reminiscent of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or undifferentiated basaloid intraepithelial lesions with occasional p16ink4a block staining resembling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Gains of chromosome 3q, angiogenic germline variants the inflammatory infiltrate may contribute to progression of HPV-negative cervical carcinogenesis.
Publication Date: 2021-08-14
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
Molecular Characterization and Clinical Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Patients With TP53 Mutation.
Mutations in TP53 in myeloid neoplasms patients have been associated with poor prognosis. Effective treatments to these patients remain unclear.
In this study, we retrospectively analyzed diagnostic and outcomes of 31 Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML) and 9 Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with TP53 mutation at our hospital from September 2015 to October 2020.
A total of 42 variants (28 unique variants) in the coding region of TP53 gene were identified, and most were missense mutation (34 of 42, 81%). The median overall survival (OS) was 8 months for the AML patients (1-32 months) and 7 months for the MDS patients (3-27 months). There were 35 and 13 patients underwent frontline chemical therapy and Allo-HSCT, respectively. The overall response rate was 45.3% (16/35) for the frontline treatment. There was no significant difference between intensive and low-intensity regimens on either response to the frontline treatment (P = .255) or overall survival (P = .078). Patients, who achieved complete or partial remission at the frontline treatment, presented a higher survival than patients in non-remission, no matter transplant or not.
This study corroborates that improving the response to the first-line treatment could prolong the survival of myeloid neoplasms patients with TP53 mutation. Allo-HSCT could be a curative option for patients with TP53 mutation, when in complete remission during the first-line treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-08-12
Journal: Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
Understanding p53 tumour suppressor network.
The mutation of TP53 gene affects half of all human cancers, resulting in impairment of the regulation of several cellular functions, including cell cycle progression and cell death in response to genotoxic stress. In the recent years additional p53-mediated tumour suppression mechanisms have been described, questioning the contribution of its canonical pathway for tumour suppression. These include regulation of alternative cell death modalities (i.e. ferroptosis), cell metabolism and the emerging role in RNA stability. Here we briefly summarize our knowledge on p53 "canonical DNA damage response" and discuss the most relevant recent findings describing potential mechanistic explanation of p53-mediated tumour suppression.
Publication Date: 2021-08-08
Journal: Biology direct
Psychosocial interventions and needs among individuals and families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A scoping review.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a rare cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene, is associated with significant lifetime risk of developing cancer and warrants extensive and long-term surveillance. There are psychosocial impacts on individuals and families living with this condition, from the initial diagnosis throughout multiple stages across the lifespan, but these impacts have not been systematically reviewed and organized. The objective of this scoping review was to synthesize and characterize the literature on psychosocial screening and outcomes, educational needs, support services, and available interventions for patients and families with LFS. A systematic search of six databases was most recently conducted in August 2020: (PubMed/MEDLINE (NLM), EMBASE (Elsevier), Cochrane Library (Wiley), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (OVID), and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics). A total of 15 757 titles were screened, and 24 articles included. Several important themes were identified across studies: factors associated with TP53 genetic testing, LFS surveillance, psychological outcomes, and communication. Findings related to these themes were organized into age-specific categories (age agnostic/across the lifespan, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and adulthood).
Publication Date: 2021-08-07
Journal: Clinical genetics
NUAK2 and RCan2 participate in the p53 mutant pro-tumorigenic network.
Most inactivating mutations in TP53 gene generates neomorphic forms of p53 proteins that experimental evidence and clinical observations suggest to exert gain-of-function effects. While massive effort has been deployed in the dissection of wild type p53 transcriptional programme, p53 mutant pro-tumorigenic gene network is still largely elusive. To help dissecting the molecular basis of p53 mutant GOF, we performed an analysis of a fully annotated genomic and transcriptomic human pancreatic adenocarcinoma to select candidate players of p53 mutant network on the basis their differential expression between p53 mutant and p53 wild-type cohorts and their prognostic value. We identified NUAK2 and RCan2 whose p53 mutant GOF-dependent regulation was further validated in pancreatic cancer cellular model. Our data demonstrated that p53
Publication Date: 2021-08-06
Journal: Biology direct
Morphologic and molecular analysis of Richter syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients treated with ibrutinib or venetoclax.
Richter syndrome (RS) represents the development of high-grade lymphoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with an adverse prognosis. The genetic background and morphology of RS in CLL patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy is extensively characterised; however, our knowledge about RS in patients treated with targeted oral therapies should be extended. To understand the morphologic and molecular changes leading to RS in CLL patients treated with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, and the BCL2 inhibitor, venetoclax, sequential samples from six CLL/SLL patients undergoing RS were collected in both the CLL and RS phases. A detailed immunophenotypic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of RS phase was performed, followed by extensive molecular characterisation of CLL and RS samples, including the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) rearrangement, TP53 mutations, drug-induced resistance mutations in BTK and BCL2 genes and various copy number changes and point mutations detectable with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Rare, non-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma phenotypes of RS were observed in 3/6 cases, including plasmablastic lymphoma and a transitory entity between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of cases were clonally related and harboured an unmutated variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Abnormalities affecting the TP53 gene occurred in all patients, and every patient carried at least one genetic abnormality conferring susceptibility to RS. In the background of RS, 2/5 patients treated with ibrutinib showed a BTK C481S resistance mutation. One patient developed a BCL2 G101V mutation leading to venetoclax resistance and RS. In conclusion, our findings contribute to better understanding of RS pathogenesis in the era of targeted oral therapies. Rare phenotypic variants of RS do occur under the treatment of ibrutinib or venetoclax, and genetic factors leading to RS are similar to those identified in patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy. To our best knowledge, we have reported the first BCL2 G101V mutation in an RS patient treated with venetoclax.
Publication Date: 2021-08-02
WT1 inhibits AML cell proliferation in a p53-dependent manner.
WT1 has been reported to function as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that p53, served as a tumor suppressor, plays a critical role in regulating the function of WT1 in AML. For details, we performed a meta-analysis on 1131 AML cases, showing that WT1 gene mutation and TP53 gene exhibited a mutually exclusive predisposition in AML. p53 can be recruited to the promoter region of WT1's target genes to modulate their expression by physically interacting with WT1. The AML-derived p53 mutation (p53
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
Malignant Sinonasal Tumors: Update on Histological and Clinical Management.
Tumors of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (TuNSs) are rare and heterogeneous malignancies, presenting different histological features and clinical behavior. We reviewed the literature about etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs to define pathologic features and possible treatment strategies. From a diagnostic point of view, it is mandatory to have high expertise and perform an immunohistochemical assessment to distinguish between different histotypes. Due to the extreme rarity of these neoplasms, there are no standard and evidence-based therapeutic strategies, lacking prospective and large clinical trials. In fact, most studies are retrospective analyses. Surgery represents the mainstay of treatment of TuNSs for small and localized tumors allowing complete tumor removal. Locally advanced lesions require more demolitive surgery that should be always followed by adjuvant radio- or chemo-radiotherapy. Recurrent/metastatic disease requires palliative chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Many studies emphasize the role of specific genes mutations in the development of TuNSs like mutations in the exons 4-9 of the TP53 gene, in the exon 9 of the PIK3CA gene and in the promoter of the TERT gene. In the near future, this genetic assessment will have new therapeutic implications. Future improvements in the understanding of the etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs are warranted to improve their management.
Publication Date: 2021-07-22
Journal: Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
Total thyroidectomy can still remain the method of choice in some Bethesda III cases.
The latest WHO classification of tumours of endocrine organs defines new units of borderline thyroid tumours (BTT). The aim of our study was to evaluate ultrasonographic and cytological features, mutation profile and surgery treatment in rare thyroid tumours.
An analysis of 8 BTT out of 487 patients, who underwent thyroid surgery between June 2016 and June 2020. The definitive diagnosis was made postoperatively by extensive histopathological examination. Molecular genetic analysis of genes associated with thyroid oncology (BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, TERT, TP53, fused genes) were performed from one FNAB, and 7 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples.
BTT were found in a total of 8 patients (1.6%), with a predominance of men with respect to other operated patients. FNAB samples were classified in the Bethesda system as Bethesda I, Bethesda II and Bethesda III in one, four and three cases, respectively. Hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed equally in four patients. The histopathological diagnosis revealed non-invasive encapsulated follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in three patients, follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) in three patients, well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) in one patient, and hyalinizing trabecular tumour (HTT) in one case. In NIFTP cases mutation in HRAS gene in one patient together with probable pathogenic variant in TP53 gene and in NRAS gene in two patients were detected. In HTT patient PAX8/GLIS3 fusion gene was detected.
The surgical treatment of BTT is necessarily individual influenced by preoperative clinical, ultrasonographic, cytological and molecular genetic findings, and the presence of other comorbidities.
Publication Date: 2021-07-21
Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
An updated quantitative model to classify missense variants in the TP53 gene: A novel multifactorial strategy.
Multigene panel testing has led to an increase in the number of variants of uncertain significance identified in the TP53 gene, associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. We previously developed a quantitative model for predicting the pathogenicity of P53 missense variants based on the combination of calibrated bioinformatic information and somatic to germline ratio. Here, we extended this quantitative model for the classification of P53 predicted missense variants by adding new pieces of evidence (personal and family history parameters, loss-of-function results, population allele frequency, healthy individual status by age 60, and breast tumor pathology). We also annotated which missense variants might have an effect on splicing based on bioinformatic predictions. This updated model plus annotation led to the classification of 805 variants into a clinically relevant class, which correlated well with existing ClinVar classifications, and resolved a large number of conflicting and uncertain classifications. We propose this model as a reliable approach to TP53 germline variant classification and emphasize its use in contributing to optimize TP53-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines.
Publication Date: 2021-07-18
Journal: Human mutation
A variant of TP53 gene (rs 1625895, 13494g>A) is associated with neoplasm localization in patients with uterine leiomyoma.
Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is the most common benign neoplasm of the uterus. It is still unknown surely what exactly initiates transformation of the uterine myometrial cells into UL.
To study the effect of the TP53 gene variants on the risk of development and clinical features of UL.
Case-control study was performed using molecular genetic analyses of variants rs1042522 (119 G>C) and rs1625895 (13494G>A) of TP53 gene in patients with UL and comparison group of healthy women.
Investigated TP53 gene variants were not associated with the risk of UL development. The patients with the 13494GG genotype (rs1625895) had significantly more often subserous UL (р < 0.05). In patients with heterozygous variant of TP53 - 13494GA genotype (rs1625895) intramural UL was observed (р < 0.05).
The rs1625895 (13494G>A) variant of TP53 gene was associated with UL localization. The identified dependence of the UL localization on the TP53 gene variant could be useful for personalized approach to treatment.
Publication Date: 2021-07-01
Journal: Experimental oncology
Outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated acute myeloid leukemia with or without venetoclax-based therapy.
Venetoclax (VEN) in combination with a hypomethylating agent (HMA) has become the standard of care for patients aged >75 years and for those not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who have newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The benefit of VEN-based therapy in patients who have newly diagnosed AML with mutations in the TP53 gene (TP53
In this single-institutional, retrospective analysis, the authors assessed the clinical outcomes of 238 patients with newly diagnosed TP53
Patients who received VEN-based regimens were older (aged >65 years: 81% vs 65%; P = .02) and had higher response rates (complete remission, 43% vs 32%; P = .06) than those who received non-VEN-based regimens. Compared with patients who received non-VEN-based regimens, no difference in overall survival (median, 6.6 vs 5.7 months; P = .4) or relapse-free survival (median, 4.7 vs 3.5 months; P = .43) was observed in those who received VEN-based regimens, regardless of age or intensity of treatment.
The addition of VEN to standard treatment regimens did not improve outcomes in younger or older patients who had TP53
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes: a case-control study in South Indian population.
TP53 functions primarily as a tumor suppressor, controlling a myriad of signalling pathways that prevent a cell from undergoing malignant transformation. This tumor suppressive function requires an activation and stabilization of TP53 in response to cell stressors. However, besides its cancer-preventive functions, TP53 is also known to be involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolism, reproduction, stem cell renewal and development. Indeed, several lines of evidence strongly suggest that TP53 plays crucial role in diabetes. A number of studies have evaluated the association of genetic alterations (single nucleotide variations) in TP53 gene with the development of diabetes. However, the results have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the C/G polymorphism at codon 72 (Pro72/Arg72), located in exon 4 of TP53, is associated with type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. A total of 74 type 2 diabetic patients and 54 non-diabetic subjects were screened. None of the three genotypes, namely C/C (Pro/Pro), C/G (Pro/Arg), and G/G (Arg/Arg) was found to be significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our study group. The findings of this study indicate that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is not associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Further studies with a large cohort size would be necessary to corroborate the observations of this study. Nevertheless, this study represents the first genetic analysis of TP53 variants in South Indian type 2 diabetic patients.
Publication Date: 2021-06-29
Journal: Molecular biology reports
Prognostic and Predictive Implications of Cytogenetics and Genomics.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by extreme genomic heterogeneity. Numerous recurrent genetic abnormalities are associated with dismal clinical outcome in patients treated with chemo(immuno)therapy, with aberrations of the TP53 gene being the main genomic abnormalities that dictate treatment choice. In the era of novel agents the predictive significance of the genomic aberrations is highly challenged as the results of the clinical trials performed thus far question the previously established unfavorable impact of genomic aberrations, even that of the TP53 gene. The prognostic and predictive value of the most common genomic abnormalities is discussed in the present review.
Publication Date: 2021-06-28
Journal: Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
Shifting the paradigms for tumor suppression: lessons from the p53 field.
The TP53 gene continues to hold distinction as the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. Since its discovery in 1979, hundreds of research groups have devoted their efforts toward understanding why this gene is so frequently selected against by tumors, with the hopes of harnessing this information toward the improved therapy of cancer. The result is that this protein has been meticulously analyzed in tumor and normal cells, resulting in over 100,000 publications, with an average of 5000 papers published on p53 every year for the past decade. The journey toward understanding p53 function has been anything but straightforward; in fact, the field is notable for the numerous times that established paradigms not only have been shifted, but in fact have been shattered or reversed. In this review, we will discuss the manuscripts, or series of manuscripts, that have most radically changed our thinking about how this tumor suppressor functions, and we will delve into the emerging challenges for the future in this important area of research. It is hoped that this review will serve as a useful historical reference for those interested in p53, and a useful lesson on the need to be flexible in the face of established paradigms.
Publication Date: 2021-06-10
[Germline and Somatic Mutations in Archived Breast Cancer Specimens of Different Subtypes].
Molecular profiling of tumors may provide promising options for personalized treatment. We have examined the spectrum of germline and somatic mutations in 23 breast cancers (ВС) of various molecular subtypes, including tumors 1) with expression of estrogen, progesterone and/or epidermal growth factor receptor HER2/neu, and 2) with a triple negative phenotype. Genomic DNA specimens were isolated from archived tumor and normal tissue samples and subjected to targeted sequencing of the coding regions of 25 cancer-associated genes with a mean coverage of x 1000. In the triple negative subtype of ВС, the pathogenic germline mutations BRCA1 c.66_67delAG (185delAG) and BRCA1 c.3226_3227AG (3347delAG) were detected, while the germline mutation BRCA2 658_659del (886delGT) was found in patients with positive receptor staining. Mutations in BRCAl/2 were overrepresented by frequency (80%), pointing at common loss of heterozygosity affecting the normal allele. Somatic mutations in the TP53 gene were found in 7/10 (70%) patients with the triple negative subtype of ВС and in 3/13 (23%) in the group with positive receptor staining. Additionally, in both groups of patients, somatic mutations of the PTEN, MSH2, MSH6, and MUTYH genes were detected.
Publication Date: 2021-06-08
Journal: Molekuliarnaia biologiia
A Clinicopathological Study of Young-onset Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed at 40 years of age or below.
Expression of CK19, Glypican-3 and β-catenin was assessed in clinical samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Hotspot mutations in TP53 gene were analyzed by sequencing.
Thirty-six cases were included with a male to female ratio of 3:1. Eighty percent of cases were associated with chronic hepatitis B infection. CK19 and GPC3 were expressed in 61% and 56% of cases, respectively. Only one case demonstrated β-catenin over-expression. TP53 hotspot mutation was identified in 4 cases. Number of tumor nodules, vascular invasion, and preoperative serum AFP level were associated with prognosis.
A higher CK19 expression rate was observed in our young-onset HCC cohort, whereas β-catenin pathway activation and TP53 gene mutation events were less frequent. Conventional clinicopathological parameters remain predictors of survival.
Publication Date: 2021-06-05
Journal: Anticancer research