pubmed > NFKB > transcription factor nfkb

The lectin ArtinM activates RBL-2H3 mast cells without inducing degranulation.
Mast cells are connective tissue resident cells with morphological and functional characteristics that contribute to their role in allergic and inflammatory processes, host defense and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Mast cell activation results in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators which are largely responsible for the physiological functions of mast cells. The lectin ArtinM, extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), binds to D-manose, thus inducing degranulation of mast cells. ArtinM has several immunomodulatory properties including acceleration of wound healing, and induction of cytokine release. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ArtinM in the activation and proliferation of mast cells. The rat mast cell line RBL-2H3 was used throughout this study. At a low concentration (0.25μg/mL), ArtinM induced mast cell activation and the release of IL-6 without stimulating the release of pre-formed or newly formed mediators. Additionally, when the cells were activated by ArtinM protein tyrosine phosphorylation was stimulated. The low concentration of ArtinM also activated the transcription factor NFkB, but not NFAT. ArtinM also affected the cell cycle and stimulated cell proliferation. Therefore, ArtinM may have therapeutic applications by modulating immune responses due to its ability to activate mast cells and promote the release of newly synthesized mediators. Additionally, ArtinM could have beneficial effects at low concentrations without degranulating mast cells and inducing allergic reactions.
Publication Date: 2020-03-26
Journal: PloS one

Nlrp3 Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes Declines During Healthy Aging.
Aging is often associated with elevated levels of low grade inflammation supposed to drive age-associated diseases. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 58 healthy volunteers, aged from 19 to 81, to investigate the relationship between age and the expression of three inflammasome component genes (Nlrp3, Asc, Casp1), the up-stream transcription factor NFkB, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-1β in leukocytes. We also assessed C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-1β in plasma, as additional inflammatory markers. We did not find any support to the hypothesis that inflammasone activation increases with age. Expression of Asc, Casp1, NFkB, and Il-1β did not vary with age, body mass index (BMI), and CRP levels. In addition, expression did not differ between males and females or between smokers and non-smokers. A notable exception was the expression of Nlrp3 which varied non-linearly with age. Specifically, Nlrp3 expression strongly declined during aging, in subjects who were between 50 and 81 years old. CRP was higher in women and increased as a function of age-corrected BMI, while only four subjects showed detectable amount of IL-1β in plasma. Further work on larger cohorts with a longitudinal monitoring should be conducted to corroborate the finding that healthy aging is associated with a decrease in inflammasome activation.
Publication Date: 2018-02-08
Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

Transcriptional profiling of the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pretreatment in blood from probiotics-treated dairy cows.
Probiotic supplements are beneficial for animal health and rumen function; and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram negative bacteria have been associated with inflammatory diseases. In this study the transcriptional profile in whole blood collected from probiotics-treated cows was investigated in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro. Microarray experiment was performed between LPS-treated and control samples using the Agilent one-color bovine v2 bovine (v2) 4x44K array slides. Global gene expression analysis identified 13,658 differentially expressed genes (fold change cutoff ≥ 2, P < 0.05), 3816 upregulated genes and 9842 downregulated genes in blood in response to LPS. Treatment with LPS resulted in increased expression of TLR4 (Fold change (FC) = 3.16) and transcription factor NFkB (FC = 5.4) and decreased the expression of genes including TLR1 (FC = - 2.54), TLR3 (FC = - 2.43), TLR10 (FC = - 3.88), NOD2 (FC = - 2.4), NOD1 (FC = - 2.45) and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B (- 3.27). The regulation of the genes involved in inflammation signaling pathway suggests that probiotics may stimulate the innate immune response of animal against parasitic and bacterial infections. We have provided a detailed description of the experimental design, microarray experiment and normalization and analysis of data which have been deposited into NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GSE75240.
Publication Date: 2016-09-23
Journal: Genomics data

rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB.
The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for additional studies on the pathogenesis of P. brasiliensis.
Publication Date: 2015-09-01
Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases

Did human hairlessness allow natural photobiomodulation 2 million years ago and enable photobiomodulation therapy today? This can explain the rapid expansion of our genus's brain.
Present hypotheses to explain human hairlessness appear to be inadequate because hairlessness is not accompanied by any immediate benefit. A new, testable, hypothesis is advanced to explain our hairlessness based on photobiomodulation research, also known as low-level light therapy. This shows that red and near infrared radiation has a very beneficial effect on superficial tissues, including the brain. Random mutation/s resulting in complete hairlessness allowed early humans to receive daily doses of red and near infrared radiation at sunset. Photobiomodulation research shows this has a twofold effect: it results in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activity with consequent ATP 'extrasynthesis' in all superficial tissues, including the brain. It also advantageously affects the expression of over 100 genes through the activation of transcription factor NFkB which results in cerebral metabolic and haemodynamic enhancement. It is also possible that melanin can supply electrons to the respiratory chain resulting in ATP extrasynthesis. These effects would start automatically as soon as hairlessness occurred resulting in a selective sweep of the mutation/s involved. This was followed by the very rapid brain evolution of the last 2 my which, it is suggested, was due to intelligence-led evolution based initially on the increased energy and adeptness of the newly hairless individuals.
Publication Date: 2015-02-24
Journal: Medical hypotheses

Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs.
Publication Date: 2014-08-15
Journal: Endocrine-related cancer

PI3K/p110α inhibition selectively interferes with arterial thrombosis and neointima formation, but not re-endothelialization: potential implications for drug-eluting stent design.
Impaired re-endothelialization and stent thrombosis are a safety concern associated with drug-eluting stents (DES). PI3K/p110α controls cellular wound healing pathways, thereby representing an emerging drug target to modulate vascular homoeostasis after injury. PI3K/p110α was inhibited by treatment with the small molecule inhibitor PIK75 or a specific siRNA. Arterial thrombosis, neointima formation, and re-endothelialization were studied in a murine carotid artery injury model. Proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelial cell (EC) were assessed by cell number and Boyden chamber, respectively. Endothelial senescence was evaluated by the β-galactosidase assay, endothelial dysfunction by organ chambers for isometric tension. Arterial thrombus formation was delayed in mice treated with PIK75 when compared with controls. PIK75 impaired arterial expression and activity of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1); in contrast, plasma clotting and platelet aggregation did not differ. In VSMC and EC, PIK75 inhibited expression and activity of TF and PAI-1. These effects occurred at the transcriptional level via the RhoA signalling cascade and the transcription factor NFkB. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/p110α with PIK75 or a specific siRNA selectively impaired proliferation and migration of VSMC while sparing EC completely. Treatment with PIK75 did not induce endothelial senescence nor inhibit endothelium-dependent relaxations. In line with this observation, treatment with PIK75 selectively inhibited neointima formation without affecting re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Following vascular injury, PI3K/p110α inhibition selectively interferes with arterial thrombosis and neointima formation, but not re-endothelialization. Hence, PI3K/p110α represents an attractive new target in DES design.
Publication Date: 2013-12-18
Journal: European heart journal

Prenatal activation of maternal TLR3 receptors by viral-mimetic poly(I:C) modifies GluN2B expression in embryos and sonic hedgehog in offspring in the absence of kynurenine pathway activation.
Activation of the immune system during pregnancy is believed to lead to psychiatric and neurological disorders in the offspring, but the molecular changes responsible are unknown. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is a viral-mimetic double-stranded RNA complex which activates Toll-Like-Receptor-3 and can activate the metabolism of tryptophan through the oxidative kynurenine pathway to compounds that modulate activity of glutamate receptors. The aim was to determine whether prenatal administration of poly(I:C) affects the expression of neurodevelopmental proteins in the offspring and whether such effects were mediated via the kynurenine pathway. Pregnant rats were treated with poly(I:C) during late gestation and the offspring were allowed to develop to postnatal day 21 (P21). Immunoblotting of the brains at P21 showed decreased expression of sonic hedgehog, a key protein in dopaminergic neuronal maturation. Expression of α-synuclein was decreased, while tyrosine hydroxylase was increased. Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1) and 5-HT2C receptor levels were unaffected, as were the dependence receptors Unc5H1, Unc5H3 and Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), the inflammation-related transcription factor NFkB and the inducible oxidative enzyme cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). An examination of embryo brains 5 h after maternal poly(I:C) showed increased expression of GluN2B, with reduced doublecortin and DCC but no change in NFkB. Despite altered protein expression, there were no changes in the kynurenine pathway. The results show that maternal exposure to poly(I:C) alters the expression of proteins in the embryos and offspring which may affect the development of dopaminergic function. The oxidation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway is not involved in these effects.
Publication Date: 2013-08-29
Journal: Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology

Regulation of constitutive vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid organ cultures: p38, nuclear factor κB, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eye. Despite the role of VEGF in ocular pathology, VEGF is an important factor in maintaining the choroid and the RPE. Accordingly, the VEGF is constitutively expressed in RPE. In this study, the regulation of constitutive VEGF expression was investigated in an RPE/choroid organ culture. To investigate VEGF regulation, RPE/choroid of porcine origin were used. VEGF content was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The influence of several molecular factors was assessed with commercially available inhibitors (SU1498, bisindolylmaleimide, LY294002, nuclear factor kappaB [NFkB] activation inhibitor, mithramycin, YC-1, Stattic, SB203580). For toxicity measurements of inhibitors, primary RPE cells of porcine origin were used, and toxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. VEGF secretion as measured in the RPE/choroid organ culture was diminished after long-term (48 h) inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 by VEGFR-2-antagonist SU1498. VEGF secretion was also diminished after phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase was inhibited by LY294002 for 48 h. Coapplication of the substances did not show an additive effect, suggesting that they use the same pathway in an autocrine-positive VEGF regulation loop. Inhibition of protein kinase C by bisindolylmaleimide, on the other hand, did not influence VEGF secretion in organ culture. Inhibition of the transcription factor SP-1 by mithramycin displayed effects after 24 h and 48 h. Inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and Stat3 did not show any influence on constitutive VEGF secretion. Inhibition of the transcription factor NFkB diminished VEGF secretion after 6 h (earliest measured time point) and remained diminished at all measured time points (24 h, 48 h). The same pattern was found when the inhibitor of mitogen-activated kinase p38 was applied. A combination of NFkB and p38 inhibitors displayed an additive effect, completely abolishing VEGF secretion. Constitutive VEGF secretion in the RPE/choroid seems to be regulated by the transcription factor NFkB and the mitogen-activated kinase p38 in an independent manner. Constitutive VEGF secretion may be regulated to a lesser extent by the transcription factor SP-1, while Stat3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 do not seem to be involved. Additionally, VEGF secretion seems to be regulated long-term by an autocrine positive loop via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase.
Publication Date: 2013-02-13
Journal: Molecular vision

CD28 co-signaling in the adaptive immune response.
T-cell proliferation and function depends on signals from the antigen-receptor complex (TCR/CD3) and by various co-receptors such as CD28 and CTLA-4. The balance of positive and negative signals determines the outcome of the T-cell response to foreign and self-antigen. CD28 is a prominent co-receptor in naïve and memory T-cell responses. Its blockade has been exploited clinically to dampen T-cell responses to self-antigen. Current evidence shows that CD28 both potentiates TCR signaling and engages a unique array of mediators (PI3K, Grb2, FLNa) in the regulation of aspects of T-cell signaling including the transcription factor NFkB. In this mini-review, we provide an up-to-date overview of our understanding of the signaling mechanisms that underlie CD28 function and its potential application to the modulation of reactivity to autoimmunity.
Publication Date: 2011-04-14
Journal: Self/nonself

Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.
In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic information.
Publication Date: 2010-03-09
Journal: Chronobiology international

Tyrosine phosphorylation and CD95: a FAScinating switch.
Apoptosis or programmed cell-death is an important process involved in tissue homeostasis, development and a variety of immune responses.(1) The apoptotic program can be activated via transmembrane receptors stimulated by their cognate ligands. The presence of a well-conserved region of 80 amino acids in their intracellular tail, the Death-Domain (DD), has conferred those receptors the general name of "death receptors". Death receptors are a subfamily of the TNF receptor superfamily, which includes the TNF receptor-I (TNFR1), TRAMP, DR3/APO-3, TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1/DR4), TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R1/DR5), DR6 and CD95 (Fas/Apo-1). The pro-apoptotic properties of the CD95 system have been extensively studied during the past decades. Nevertheless, CD95 has now emerged as an important activator of other major signaling pathways leading to a variety of phenotypes. In the last years, stimulation of CD95 has been described to activate the MAPK pathways p38, JNK and ERK. (2-6) CD95 has also been shown to activate the transcription factor NFkB. (67-9) However, the molecular mechanisms leading to activation of such pathways are not fully understood and their contribution to the final phenotype is still unclear. CD95 has been shown to be particularly involved in tumor cell invasion, (6) neurite sprouting and outgrowth,(5,10) as well as cell proliferation(11,12)--functions that lay to rest the general assumption of CD95 as a death receptor. In our group we have recently described a novel molecular link between CD95 and the phosphatydilinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in Glioblastoma multiforme. In the present review we will discuss the past and present knowledge of the CD95/CD95L system and its role in PI3K signaling.
Publication Date: 2009-02-18
Journal: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Identification of the distinct promoters for the two transcripts of apoptosis related protein 3 and their transcriptional regulation by NFAT and NFkappaB.
APR3 (apoptosis related protein 3) is a novel gene highly conserved across species. Analysis of the data about APR3 available at GEO profiles revealed consistent and significant changes of APR3 expression level in certain developmental and inflammatory processes. Based on the search and analysis of all the submitted mRNA sequence, we postulated that the two transcripts may arise from separate promoter activities rather than previously assumed alternative splicing. Through reporter assay and PCR data, we identified the distinct promoters for the two transcripts of APR3. Furthermore, exogenous expression of a constitutively active mutant of transcription factor NFAT was able to enhance both the promoter activities of APR3. Sequential deletion of the promoter from the 5' side and mutation of the promoter suggested the functional NFAT binding sites might localize between -96 bp and -47 bp. In contrast, exogenous expression of a constitutively active mutant of the transcription factor NFkB inhibited APR3 transcription. Our data suggested that APR3 might be functionally important in certain processes under which NFAT and/or NFkappaB are/is activated.
Publication Date: 2007-03-28
Journal: Molecular and cellular biochemistry

Integrative roles of transforming growth factor-alpha in the cytoprotection mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury.
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) protects against gastric mucosal injury and facilitates wound healing. However, its overexpression is known to induce hypertrophic gastropathy resembling Menetrier's disease in transgenic (TG) mice on an FVB background, as one of the authors reported previously. We studied another TGFalpha-expressing mouse line on a CD1 background, whose gastric mucosa appears normal. Since this TG mouse had a strong resistance to ethanol-induced gastric injury, we considered the long-term effect of TGFalpha on several gastric protection mechanisms. TGFalpha-expressing transgenic (TG) mouse lines bearing human TGFalpha cDNA under the control of the mouse metallothionein gene I promoter were generated on a CD1 mouse background, and analyzed their ethanol injury-resistant phenotypes produced by TGFalpha. In the TG mucosa, blood flow was well maintained after ethanol injury. Further, neural and inducible types of NO synthases were consistently and widely expressed in the TG mucosa, compared with the limited distribution of neural type NO synthase in the luminal pit region of the wild-type (WT) mucosa. COX-2 and its upstream transcription factor NfkB were constitutively elevated in the TG mucosa even before ethanol administration, whereas they were induced in the same region of the WT mucosa only after ethanol injury. Two anti-apoptotic proteins, HSP70 and Bcl-2, were upregulated in the TG mucosa even before ethanol administration, while they were not expressed in the WT mucosa before the injury. Furthermore, pro-caspase 3 activation was inhibited in the TG mucosa, while it was converted to the active form in the WT mucosa following ethanol administration. We conclude that TGFalpha maintains the gastric mucosal defense against gastric injury by integrating other cytoprotective mechanisms.
Publication Date: 2006-08-02
Journal: BMC gastroenterology

[Proteinuria-induced mechanisms of tubulointerstitial remodeling and possibilities of nephroprotection in glomerulonephritis].
The authors describe various mechanisms (including cellular and molecular ones) that mediate the realization of interstitial inflammation under the influence of proteinuria components. The paper covers epithelial cell transdifferentiation processes, the role of angiotensin II, transforming growth factor beta, nuclear transcription factor NFkB, chemokines, endothelial factors etc. The effects of drugs routinely used in nephrology at present (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, statines etc.) are presented in a new way according to the modern conception of the mechanisms of proteinuria-induced renal interstitial tissue remodeling in glomerulonephritis. The authors consider administration of antichemokine agents, which influences chemokine/chemokine receptor system, to be a prospective independent immunotherapeutic direction in treatment, aimed at prevention of glomerulonephritis progression.
Publication Date: 2005-02-18
Journal: Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk

Identification of a nuclear protein interacting with a novel site on rat androgen receptor promoter after transcription factor NFkB is displaced from adjacent site.
Sequence-specific DNA-protein interactions mediate the regulation of rat androgen receptor (rAR) gene expression. Previously, DNase I footprinting revealed that nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) binds to region -574 to -554 on rAR promoter and represses its expression. In this study, we demonstrate that when NFkB protein is removed from its site by competitor DNA in DNase I footprinting reaction, a new DNase I protected region is formed overlapping adjacently (-594 to -561). This indicates that another nuclear protein (named here as FRN, factor repressed by NFkB) binds to rAR promoter only after NFkB protein is displaced. By competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay and mutation analysis, we confirmed the formation of FRN-DNA complex. FRN interacts with a novel sequence on rAR promoter and may play a role in regulation of rAR gene expression in concert with NFkB.
Publication Date: 2003-07-05
Journal: Molecular biology reports

[HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway].
In asymptomatic patients infected by HIV-1, the level of IL-10, a cytokine with immunosuppressive activity, is associated with the course of HIV infection towards AIDS. We show that HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein secreted by infected cells, induces IL-10 production by human peripheral blood monocytes. The analysis of the signal transduction pathways strongly suggests that the protein kinase C may play an essential role in this induction. Stimulation by Tat induces nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFkB the activation of which seems to be necessary for IL-10 production. Using microspectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy, we also show that Tat induces a calcium influx.
Publication Date: 2002-02-09
Journal: Journal de la Societe de biologie

Oxidative stress indices in Parkinson's disease : biochemical determination.
ABSTRUCT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive degeneration of melanin-containing dopamine neuron cell bodies arising in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and projecting terminals to the striatum. The disease is best characterized biochemically as a deficiency of striatal dopamine. The mechanism of neurodegeneration remains an enigma despite a large body of investigation and several hypotheses (1-5). In the past decade much has been learned about the chemical pathology of the disease. This progress has been helped by elucidation of the mechanism of the neurotoxic actions of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which are used to induce animal models of this disease. Thus, the most valid current hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD is progressive oxidative stress (OS), which can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) selectively in the SNpc (1-9), and subsequent biochemical abnormalities (Table 1). In addition, the ROS scavenging system may also diminish, which would exaggerate the condition leading to accumulation of ROS. In PD, it is thought that both these events occur; Table 1 gives a summary of the biochemical changes identified to date in the SNpc of PD patients. Iron, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and heme oxygenase (radical producing) are increased; reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C (radical scavenging) are decreased. Whether OS is a primary or secondary event in PD has not been established, but when it does occur, OS can lead to a cascade of events resulting in the demise of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. One approach toward protection of such neurons is the use of radical scavengers or iron chelators as neuroprotective drugs (10). Table 1 Biochemical Alterations in Substantia Nigra of Parkinson's Disease Indicating Oxidative Stress Elevated Decreased Iron (in microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and melanized dopamine neurons and mitochondria) GSH (GSSG unchanged); GSH/GSSG ratio decreased Mitochondrial complex I Ferritin Calcium binding protein (calbindin 28) Mitochondrial monoamine oxidase B Transferrin and transferrin receptor Lipofuscin Vitamins E and C Ubiquitin Copper Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase Cytotoxic cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6) Inflammatory transcription factor NFKB Heme oxygenase-1 Ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) Nitric oxide Neuromelanin.
Publication Date: 2001-01-01
Journal: Methods in molecular medicine

Cancer chemoprevention by tea polyphenols through mitotic signal transduction blockade.
Tea is a popular beverage. The consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of several types of cancer, including stomach, esophagus, and lung. The cancer chemopreventive effect of tea has been attributed to its major phytopolyphenols. The tea polyphenols comprise about one-third of the weight of the dried leaf, and they show profound biochemical and pharmacological activities including antioxidant activities, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. They intervene in the biochemical and molecular processes of multistep carcinogenesis, comprising tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Several studies demonstrate that most tea polyphenols exert their scavenging effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS); excessive production of ROS has been implicated for the development of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Recently, we have found that the major tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) suppresses extracellular signals and cell proliferation through epidermal growth factor receptor binding in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells; EGCG also blocks the induction of nitric oxide synthase by down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced activity of the transcription factor NFKB in macrophages. Furthermore, EGCG blocks the cell cycle at the G1 phase in MCF-7 cells. We have demonstrated that EGCG inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4; meanwhile, EGCG induces the expression of the Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27. These results suggest that tumor promotion can be enhanced by ROS and oxidative mitotic signal transduction, and this enhancement can be suppressed by EGCG or other tea polyphenols.
Publication Date: 1999-10-06
Journal: Biochemical pharmacology

The anti-p75 antibody, MC192, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibit nerve growth factor-dependent neurite growth from adult sensory neurons.
We have investigated nerve growth factor-dependent neurite growth from adult sensory neurons using the compartmented culture system. The requirement of both TrkA and the p75 neurotrophin receptors in neurite growth was examined using several experimental interventions. Inhibition of TrkA activation using K252a resulted in a total block of distal neurite extension into nerve growth factor-containing compartments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the anti-p75 monoclonal antibody MC192 have been shown to interfere with the binding of nerve growth factor to p75. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which binds p75 but not TrkA, competes with nerve growth factorforp75, while the anti-p75 antibody MC192 has been shown to decrease the interaction of nerve growth factor with TrkA. The addition of brain-derived neurotophic factor to nerve growth factor-containing distal compartments inhibited, but did not totally block, distal neurite extension. MC192, on the other hand, totally inhibited nerve growth factor-dependent neurite growth. To test whether MC192 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor might be influencing Trk activation, TrkA phosphorylation was examined biochemically. Both compounds were found to attenuate nerve growth factor-induced Trk phosphorylation, although neither inhibited the activation completely. The possibility that MC192 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor might activate p75 signaling directly (and potentially antagonize TrkA signaling) was also investigated. This was assessed by quantitating the activation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFkB using immunocytochemistry. Only treatment with the anti-p75 antibody MC192 resulted in prolonged and significant increase in the number of neurons displaying nuclear staining for NFkB. Our results demonstrate that both TrkA and p75 play a role in neurite growth response to nerve growth factor, and further suggest that any alteration in optimal TrkA-p75 interactions, or direct activation of p75 at the expense of TrkA, results in an inhibition of nerve growth factor-dependent neurite growth in adult sensory neurons.
Publication Date: 1999-08-03
Journal: Neuroscience