pubmed > ESR1 > tumors

Androgen receptor splice variant-7 in breast cancer: clinical and pathologic correlations.
Androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor therapy is a developing treatment for AR-positive breast cancer (BC) with ongoing clinical trials. AR splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a truncated variant of AR that leads to AR inhibitor therapy resistance in prostate cancer; recent studies have identified AR-V7 in BC and theorized that AR-V7 can have a similar impact. This study assessed the prevalence and clinicopathologic features associated with AR-V7 in a large BC cohort. BC samples were evaluated by MSK-Fusion targeted RNAseq for AR-V7 detection and MSK-IMPACT targeted DNAseq, including triple-negative tumors with no driver alteration and estrogen receptor-positive/ESR1 wildtype tumors progressing on therapy. Among 196 primary and metastatic/recurrent cases (196 RNAseq, 194DNAseq), 9.7% (19/196) were AR-V7 positive and 90.3% (177/196) AR-V7 negative. All AR-V7 positive BC were AR-positive by immunohistochemistry (19/19). The prevalence of AR-V7 by receptor subtype (N = 189) was: 18% (12/67) in ER-/PgR-/HER2-negative BC, 3.7% (4/109) in ER-positive/HER2-negative BC, and 15.4% (2/13) in HER2-positive BC; AR-V7 was detected in one ER-positive/HER2-unknown BC. Apocrine morphology was observed in 42.1% (8/19) of AR-V7 positive BC and 3.4% (6/177) AR-V7 negative BC (P < 0.00001). Notably, AR-V7 was detected in 2 primary BC and 7 metastatic/recurrent BC patients with no prior endocrine therapy. We conclude that positive AR IHC and apocrine morphology are pathologic features that may indicate testing for AR-V7 is warranted in both primary and metastatic BC in the appropriate clinical context. The study findings further encourage the assessment of AR-V7 as a predictive biomarker for AR antagonist benefit in ongoing clinical BC trials.
Publication Date: 2021-10-02
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Co-exposure to BPA and DEHP enhances susceptibility of mammary tumors via up-regulating Esr1/HDAC6 pathway in female rats.
Breast cancer (BrCa) as one of the major malignancies threatening women's health worldwide occurs due to the genetic and environmental interactions. Epidemiological studies have suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can elevate the risk of breast cancer. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are known as two typical EDCs. Although several studies have implied that there appear to have adverse effects of exposure to BPA or DEHP alone on breast development, no study to date has demonstrated the exact toxic effect of combined exposure to DEHP and BPA on breast tumorigenesis. In the present study, we performed an in vivo experiment including 160 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, in which 80 rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups including control group given to normal diet, DEHP (150 mg/kg body weight/day), BPA (20 mg/kg body weight/day), and DEHP (150 mg/kg body weight/day) combined with BPA (20 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 30 weeks. Additionally, a DEN/MNU/DHPN (DMD)-induced carcinogenesis animal model was also established to assess their effect on tumor promotion. Namely, the other 80 SD rats were separated into another 4 groups: in addition to DMD initiation each group treated with vehicle, DEHP, BPA and the combination of BPA and DEHP respectively. Our data demonstrated that BPA alone or in combination with DEHP may induce hyperplasia of mammary glands, including the proliferation of ductal epithelial cells and an increase in the number of lobules and acinus after a 30-week exposure. Notably, co-exposure to DEHP and BPA increased the incidence and reduced the latency of mammary tumor, which seemed to enhance the susceptibility of carcinogens-induced tumor. Mechanistically, our results supported the hypothesis that exposure to BPA and DEHP might promote breast cancer dependent on Esr1 and HDAC6 as pivotal factors, and further lead to the activation of oncogene c-Myc. Our study suggested that BPA combined with DEHP facilitate the occurrence of mammary tumors, which contributed to advance our understanding in the complex effects of compound exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.
Publication Date: 2021-06-30
Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Molecular differential analysis of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas through weighted gene network and pathway tracing approaches.
Uterine smooth muscular neoplastic growths like benign leiomyomas (UL) and metastatic leiomyosarcomas (ULMS) share similar clinical symptoms, radiological and histological appearances making their clinical distinction a difficult task. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify key genes and pathways involved in transformation of UL to ULMS through molecular differential analysis. Global gene expression profiles of 25 ULMS, 25 UL, and 29 myometrium (Myo) tissues generated on Affymetrix U133A 2.0 human genome microarrays were analyzed by deploying robust statistical, molecular interaction network, and pathway enrichment methods. The comparison of expression signals across Myo vs UL, Myo vs ULMS, and UL vs ULMS groups identified 249, 1037, and 716 significantly expressed genes, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). The analysis of 249 DEGs from Myo vs UL confirms multistage dysregulation of various key pathways in extracellular matrix, collagen, cell contact inhibition, and cytokine receptors transform normal myometrial cells to benign leiomyomas (p value ≤ 0.01). The 716 DEGs between UL vs ULMS were found to affect cell cycle, cell division related Rho GTPases and PI3K signaling pathways triggering uncontrolled growth and metastasis of tumor cells (p value ≤ 0.01). Integration of gene networking data, with additional parameters like estimation of mutation burden of tumors and cancer driver gene identification, has led to the finding of 4 hubs (JUN, VCAN, TOP2A, and COL1A1) and 8 bottleneck genes (PIK3R1, MYH11, KDR, ESR1, WT1, CCND1, EZH2, and CDKN2A), which showed a clear distinction in their distribution pattern among leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. This study provides vital clues for molecular distinction of UL and ULMS which could further assist in identification of specific diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.
Publication Date: 2021-03-10
Journal: Systems biology in reproductive medicine

Therapeutic role of recurrent ESR1-CCDC170 gene fusions in breast cancer endocrine resistance.
Endocrine therapy is the most common treatment for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but its effectiveness is limited by high rates of primary and acquired resistance. There are likely many genetic causes, and recent studies suggest the important role of ESR1 mutations and fusions in endocrine resistance. Previously, we reported a recurrent ESR1 fusion called ESR1-CCDC170 in 6-8% of the luminal B breast cancers that has a worse clinical outcome after endocrine therapy. Despite being the most frequent ESR1 fusion, its functional role in endocrine resistance has not been studied in vivo, and the engaged mechanism and therapeutic relevance remain uncharacterized. The endocrine sensitivities of HCC1428 or T47D breast cancer cells following genetic perturbations of ESR1-CCDC170 were assessed using clonogenic assays and/or xenograft mouse models. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by reverse phase protein array, western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. The sensitivity of ESR1-CCDC170 expressing breast cancer cells to concomitant treatments of tamoxifen and HER/SRC inhibitors was assessed by clonogenic assays. Our results suggested that different ESR1-CCDC170 fusions endow different levels of reduced endocrine sensitivity in vivo, resulting in significant survival disadvantages. Further investigation revealed a novel mechanism that ESR1-CCDC170 binds to HER2/HER3/SRC and activates SRC/PI3K/AKT signaling. Silencing of ESR1-CCDC170 in the fusion-positive cell line, HCC1428, downregulates HER2/HER3, represses pSRC/pAKT, and improves endocrine sensitivity. More important, breast cancer cells expressing ectopic or endogenous ESR1-CCDC170 are highly sensitive to treatment regimens combining endocrine agents with the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib and/or the SRC inhibitor dasatinib. ESR1-CCDC170 may endow breast cancer cell survival under endocrine therapy via maintaining/activating HER2/HER3/SRC/AKT signaling which implies a potential therapeutic strategy for managing these fusion positive tumors.
Publication Date: 2020-08-11
Journal: Breast cancer research : BCR

Uterine Tumor Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Stromal Tumor (UTROSCT): A Series of 3 Cases With Extensive Rhabdoid Differentiation, Malignant Behavior, and ESR1-NCOA2 Fusions.
ESR1 and GREB1 fusions have recently been described in uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT). Thus far, recurrences have been documented in a subset of those harboring GREB1 fusions, but not in those with ESR1 rearrangements. Here we describe the clinicopathologic features of 3 recurrent UTROSCTs with striking rhabdoid morphology (an unusual feature of these tumors overall) and ESR1-NCOA2 fusions. The patients were 32, 37, and 54 years at initial diagnosis and first recurrence occurred at 7, 9, and 32 years. The primary tumors (available in two cases) were centered in the myometrium and showed infiltrative borders. They predominantly grew in sheets and cords, but also had a pseudopapillary appearance. Cells were uniformly epithelioid with eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, abundant eosinophilic globular/glassy (rhabdoid) cytoplasm, and infrequent mitoses (≤4/10 high-power fields [HPFs]). Recurrences were morphologically identical to the primary tumors, but demonstrated brisk mitotic activity (≥16/10 HPFs). The third tumor (with only recurrences available) had multiple patterns, including diffuse, corded, trabecular, and a focal retiform growth. Rhabdoid cells were conspicuous, but only comprised ~50% of the tumor, and mitoses numbered up to 2/10 HPFs. All tumors were strongly and diffusely positive for WT1, CAM5.2, ER, and PR, but negative for inhibin. Diffuse calretinin and desmin expression, as well as focal melan-A positivity, was noted in one tumor, but was negative in the others. In all 3 tumors, INI-1 and BRG-1 were retained, and ESR1-NCOA2 fusions were detected by targeted RNA sequencing. This study is the first to highlight an association between UTROSCTs with extensive rhabdoid differentiation, ESR1-NCOA2 fusions, and aggressive behavior. UTROSCTs are considered neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, but have a benign course in most cases. Thus, it is important to be aware of these specific features and recommend long-term follow-up due to their propensity for late recurrences.
Publication Date: 2020-07-18
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology

The variable association between expression and methylation of estrogen receptors and the survival of patients with different tumors.
Estrogen receptor (ER) is essential in reproductive development and is also the primary driver of breast cancers. Deregulation of ER may also be involved in tumorigenesis of other organs. To understand the role of ER in different tumor types, pan-cancer analysis of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) in various tumors and association with patients' survival were conducted using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Gene methylation level was evaluated by the mean methylation level of CpG sites in the promoter region. The significant different DNA methylation between tumor and healthy tissues was shown in 10 tumor types for ESR1 and eight tumor types for ESR2. The methylation pattern was also varied across different TCGA tumors. The pan-cancer analysis showed significantly different mRNA expression of ESR1 in nine tumor types and ESR2 in four tumor types. Survival analysis showed that the effects of ERs expression on survival are diverse in different tumors. The expression of ERs was associated with tumor molecular subtypes and various clinical characteristics. ER correlated genes were mainly enriched in cancer and immune-related pathways. Our pan-cancer analysis data indicated that ERs might be significantly associated with carcinogenesis and progression of some tumors, which may be potential therapeutic targets and prognosis biomarkers.
Publication Date: 2020-06-15
Journal: Clinical and translational medicine

Stabilization of MORC2 by estrogen and antiestrogens through GPER1- PRKACA-CMA pathway contributes to estrogen-induced proliferation and endocrine resistance of breast cancer cells.
Aberrant activation of estrogen signaling through three ESR (estrogen receptor) subtypes, termed ESR1/ERα, ESR2/ERβ, and GPER1 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1), is implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression. Antiestrogens tamoxifen (TAM) and fulvestrant (FUL) are effective for treatment of ESR1-positive breast tumors, but development of resistance represents a major clinical challenge. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these events remain largely unknown. Here, we report that 17β-estradiol (E2), TAM, and FUL stabilize MORC2 (MORC family CW-type zinc finger 2), an emerging oncoprotein in human cancer, in a GPER1-dependent manner. Mechanistically, GPER1 activates PRKACA (protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha), which in turn phosphorylates MORC2 at threonine 582 (T582). Phosphorylated MORC2 decreases its interaction with HSPA8 (heat shock protein family A [Hsp70] member 8) and LAMP2A (lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A), two core components of the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) machinery, thus protecting MORC2 from lysosomal degradation by CMA. Functionally, knockdown of 4-OHT: 4-hydroxytamoxifen; Baf A1: bafilomycin A
Publication Date: 2020-05-14
Journal: Autophagy

ESR1 mutations are frequent in newly diagnosed metastatic and loco-regional recurrence of endocrine-treated breast cancer and carry worse prognosis.
Emerging mutations in the ESR1 gene that encodes for the estrogen receptor (ER) are associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. ESR1 mutations rarely exist in primary tumors (~ 1%) but are relatively common (10-50%) in metastatic, endocrine therapy-resistant cancers and are associated with a shorter progression-free survival. Little is known about the incidence and clinical implication of these mutations in early recurrence events, such as local recurrences or newly diagnosed metastatic disease. We collected 130 archival tumor samples from 103 breast cancer patients treated with endocrine therapy prior to their local/metastatic recurrence. The cohort consisted of 41 patients having at least 1 sample from local/loco-regional recurrence and 62 patients with metastatic disease (of whom 41 newly diagnosed and 28 with advanced disease). The 5 most common ESR1 hotspot mutations (D538G, L536R, Y537S/N/C) were analyzed either by targeted sequencing or by droplet digital PCR. Progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) were statistically tested by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The prevalence of ESR1 mutations was 5/41 (12%) in newly diagnosed metastatic patients and 5/28 (18%) for advanced metastases, detected at allele frequency > 1%. All mutations in advanced metastases were detected in patients previously treated with both tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI). However, in newly diagnosed metastatic patients, 4/5 mutations occurred in patients treated with TAM alone. PFS on AI treatment in metastatic patients was significantly shorter for ESR1 mutation carriers (p = 0.017). In the local recurrence cohort, ESR1 mutations were identified in 15/41 (36%) patients but only 4/41 (10%) were detected at allele frequency > 1%. Again, most mutations (3/4) were detected under TAM monotherapy. Notably, 1 patient developed ESR1 mutation while on neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. DFS and DRFS were significantly shorter (p = 0.04 and p = 0.017, respectively) in patients that had ESR1 mutations (> 1%) in their loco-regional recurrence tumor. Clinically relevant ESR1 mutations are prevalent in newly diagnosed metastatic and local recurrence of endocrine-treated breast cancer. Since local recurrences are amenable to curative therapy, these mutations may inform the selection of subsequent endocrine therapies.
Publication Date: 2020-02-06
Journal: Breast cancer research : BCR

Detection of ESR1 Mutations in Single Circulating Tumor Cells on Estrogen Deprivation Therapy but Not in Primary Tumors from Metastatic Luminal Breast Cancer Patients.
Mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ESR1 gene result in resistance to estrogen deprivation therapy (EDT) in breast cancer. Their detection might enable optimization of therapy strategies. However, the predictive utility of the primary tumor (PT) is limited, and obtaining serial biopsies of metastatic lesions is challenging. To underline their application as a liquid biopsy, single circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed with a next-generation sequencing approach for the ESR1 coding region. CTCs from 46 metastatic luminal breast cancer patients were enriched using CellSearch system and isolated by micromanipulation. Their genomic DNA was amplified and the ESR1 gene was sequenced. Furthermore, tissue samples from corresponding PTs and/or metastatic lesions were investigated. ESR1 mutations were detected in 12 patients-exclusively in patients treated with EDT (P = 0.048). In seven cases mutations were located in the hotspot regions in the LBD. Six novel mutations were identified. ESR1 mutations were absent in PT tissue samples and were detected only in metastases obtained after CTC characterization. Single-cell CTC analysis for ESR1 mutations could be of clinical value to identify patients who progress under EDT and therefore benefit from an early switch to an alternative endocrine therapy or other treatment regimens. Furthermore, our data indicate that mutations outside the LBD's hotspot regions might also contribute to resistance to EDT.
Publication Date: 2019-11-02
Journal: The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD

Impact of estrogen receptor α on the tamoxifen response and prognosis in luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer.
The luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer groups have distinct biological features that lead to differences in the treatment response and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the value of the distribution pattern of ERα expression, ESR1 SNPs as well as ESR1 mRNA expression in predicting tamoxifen response and survival in patients with luminal-A-like and luminal-B-like breast cancer. A total of 135 patients with both subtypes were stratified into two groups depending on the tamoxifen response: tamoxifen-resistant patients (TR) and tamoxifen-sensitive patients (TS). ESR1 mRNA expression was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Three polymorphisms of ESR1 (rs2077647, rs2228480 and rs1801132) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. The distribution pattern of ERα expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using the visual assessment of staining. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). There was a significant decrease in ESR1 mRNA expression level in the TR group when compared to the TS group among patients with luminal-B-like subtype (P = 0.038). ESR1 2014AA mutant genotype of rs2228480 was more prevalent in the TR patients with luminal-B-like subtype than the TS group (P = 0.045). In the luminal-A-like group, tamoxifen-resistant tumors were more frequently heterogeneous for ERα expression than tamoxifen-sensitive tumors (P = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed a strong association of lymph node status and the distribution pattern of ERα expression with tamoxifen responsiveness in this cohort of patients. In addition, a luminal-A-like patients with the heterogeneous ERα expression had a significantly shorter PFS time than those with the homogeneous ERα (P = 0.013). These results indicate that the heterogeneous expression of ERα is an accurate predictor of tamoxifen response and survival in luminal-A-like breast cancer patients. ESR1 rs2228480 may act as a marker with a high prognostic potential in luminal-B-like tumors.
Publication Date: 2019-09-29
Journal: Clinical and experimental medicine

Estrogen receptors genotypes and canine mammary neoplasia.
Estrogens are essential for the development and proper function of several hormone-dependent organs. There are, however, several lines of evidence associating estrogens with mammary carcinogenesis. A marked individual genetic variability concerning estrogens biosynthesis, metabolism and mechanism of action was recognized and associated with human breast cancer susceptibility, clinical features and progression. Although some genetic variations in canine ESR1 gene were reported, their influence in clinicopathological features and progression of canine mammary tumors has not been fully evaluated. This study aims to assess the influence of SNPs in ESR1 gene (rs397512133, rs397510462, rs851327560, rs397510612, rs852887655, rs852684753 and rs852398698) in canine mammary tumors characteristics and progression. A group of 155 non-neutered bitches with mammary tumors was included in the study. Follow-up information was assessed 24 months after surgery. Genetic profiles associated with a later onset of mammary tumors and less aggressive clinicopathological features, namely smaller tumor size (≤ 3 cm) with extensive tubular differentiation and low canine-adapted prognostic index (vet-NPI), were identified in this study. Our data suggest that the ESR1 genetic profile may help on the decision regarding the selection of individual tailored preventive measures against canine mammary tumors development, such as early neutering.
Publication Date: 2019-09-12
Journal: BMC veterinary research

ESR1 mutations in breast cancer.
The acquisition of ligand-independent ESR1 mutations during aromatase inhibitor therapy in metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is a common mechanism of hormonal therapy resistance. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that ESR1 mutations can preexist in primary tumors and can be enriched during metastasis. Furthermore, ESR1 mutations express a unique transcriptional profile that favors tumor progression, suggesting that selected ESR1 mutations may influence metastasis. Several groups have used sensitive detection methods using patient liquid biopsies to track ESR1 or truncal somatic mutations to predict treatment outcome and tumor progression, and some of these techniques may eventually be used to guide sequential treatment options in patients. Further development and standardization of mutation tracking in circulating tumor DNA is ongoing. Clinically, patients with ESR1 mutations derive clinical benefit when treated with fulvestrant and CDK4/6-targeted therapies, but the development of more potent selective ER degraders and/or new targeted biotherapies are needed to overcome the endocrine-resistant phenotype of ESR1 mutant-bearing tumors. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of resistance and dissemination of ESR1 mutations as well as the detection methods for ESR1 mutation tracking, newly discovered potential therapeutic targets, and the clinical implications and treatment options for treating patients with ESR1 mutant-bearing tumors.
Publication Date: 2019-07-19
Journal: Cancer

Frequent amplifications of ESR1, ERBB2 and MDM4 in primary invasive lobular breast carcinoma.
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer following invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To identify potential genetic drivers of ILC progression, we used NanoString nCounter technology to investigate the DNA copy number (CN) in 70 well-curated primary ILC samples. We confirmed prior observations of frequent amplification of CCND1 (33%), and MYC (17%) in ILC, but additionally identified a substantial subset of ILCs with ESR1 and ERBB2 (19%) amplifications. Of interest, tumors with ESR1 CN gains (14%) and amplification (10%) were more likely to recur compared to those with normal CN. Finally, we observed that MDM4 (MDMX) was amplified in 17% of ILC samples. MDM4 knockdown in TP53 wild-type ILC cell lines caused increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest, and concomitant activation of TP53 target genes. Similar effects were seen in TP53 mutant cells, indicting a TP53-independent role for MDM4 in ILC. To conclude, amplification of ESR1 and MDM4 are potential genetic drivers of ILC. These amplifications may represent actionable, targetable tumor dependencies, and thus have potential clinical implications and warrant further study.
Publication Date: 2019-06-24
Journal: Cancer letters

Estrogen therapy induces an unfolded protein response to drive cell death in ER+ breast cancer.
Estrogens have been shown to elicit anticancer effects against estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer. We sought to determine the mechanism underlying the therapeutic response. Response to 17β-estradiol was assessed in ER+ breast cancer models with resistance to estrogen deprivation: WHIM16 patient-derived xenografts, C7-2-HI and C4-HI murine mammary adenocarcinomas, and long-term estrogen-deprived MCF-7 cells. As another means to reactivate ER, the anti-estrogen fulvestrant was withdrawn from fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells. Transcriptional, growth, apoptosis, and molecular alterations in response to ER reactivation were measured. 17β-estradiol treatment and fulvestrant withdrawal induced transcriptional activation of ER, and cells adapted to estrogen deprivation or fulvestrant were hypersensitive to 17β-estradiol. ER transcriptional response was followed by an unfolded protein response and apoptosis. Such apoptosis was dependent upon the unfolded protein response, p53, and JNK signaling. Anticancer effects were most pronounced in models exhibiting genomic amplification of the gene encoding ER (ESR1), suggesting that engagement of ER at high levels is cytotoxic. These data indicate that long-term adaptation to estrogen deprivation or ER inhibition alters sensitivity to ER reactivation. In such adapted cells, 17β-estradiol treatment and anti-estrogen withdrawal hyperactivate ER, which drives an unfolded protein response and subsequent growth inhibition and apoptosis. 17β-estradiol treatment should be considered as a therapeutic option for anti-estrogen-resistant disease, particularly in patients with tumors harboring ESR1 amplification or ER overexpression. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that enhance an unfolded protein response may increase the therapeutic effects of ER reactivation.
Publication Date: 2019-06-11
Journal: Molecular oncology

Clinicopathologic Characterization of GREB1-rearranged Uterine Sarcomas With Variable Sex-Cord Differentiation.
Uterine mesenchymal tumors are genetically heterogenous; those with uniform cytomorphology, best exemplified by endometrial stromal tumors, often contain various fusion genes. Novel fusions involving ESR1 and GREB1, key factors in sex hormone pathways, have been implicated in rare uterine mesenchymal tumors. Particularly, the fusions between 5'-ESR1/GREB1 and 3'-NCOA2/NCOA3 were recently identified in 4 uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT). By RNA sequencing, pathology review, and FISH screening, we identified 4 uterine sarcomas harboring rearranged GREB1, including GREB1-NCOA2 and the novel GREB1-NR4A3, GREB1-SS18, and GREB1-NCOA1, validated by RT-PCR and/or FISH. They occurred in the myometrium of postmenopausal women and were pathologically similar despite minor differences. Tumor cells were generally uniform and epithelioid, with vesicular nuclei and distinct to prominent nucleoli. Growth patterns included solid sheets, trabeculae/cords, nests, and fascicles. Only 1 tumor showed small foci of definitive sex-cord components featuring well-formed tubules, retiform structures, Leydig-like cells, and lipid-laden cells and exhibiting convincing immunoreactivity to sex-cord markers (calretinin, α-inhibin, and Melan-A). In contrast, all the 4 classic UTROSCT we collected occurred in premenopausal patients, consisted predominantly of unequivocal sex-cord elements, prominently expressed multiple sex-cord markers, and harbored ESR1-NCOA3 fusion. Combined with previously reported cases, GREB1-rearranged tumors involved significantly older women (P=0.001), tended to be larger and more mitotically active, showed more variable and often inconspicuous sex-cord differentiation, and appeared to behave more aggressively than ESR1-rearranged UTROSCT. Therefore, these 2 groups of tumors might deserve separate consideration, despite some overlapping features and the possibility of belonging to the same disease spectrum.
Publication Date: 2019-05-17
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology

Arsenic‑induced BRCA1 CpG promoter methylation is associated with the downregulation of ERα and resistance to tamoxifen in MCF7 breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tumor xenografts.
A significant percentage (~30%) of estrogen receptor‑α (ERα)‑positive tumors become refractory to endocrine therapies; however, the mechanisms responsible for this resistance remain largely unknown. Chronic exposure to arsenic through foods and contaminated water has been linked to an increased incidence of several tumors and long‑term health complications. Preclinical and population studies have indicated that arsenic exposure may interfere with endocrine regulation and increase the risk of breast tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of sodium arsenite (NaAsIII) exposure in ERα‑positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in mammary tumor xenografts. The results revealed that acute (within 4 days) and long‑term (10 days to 7 weeks) in vitro exposure to environmentally relevant doses reduced breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and ERα expression associated with the gain of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and folate receptor 1 (FOLR1), and the loss of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Furthermore, long‑term exposure to NaAsIII induced the proliferation and compromised the response of MCF7 cells to tamoxifen (TAM). The in vitro exposure to NaAsIII induced BRCA1 CpG methylation associated with the increased recruitment of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and the loss of RNA polymerase II (PolII) at the BRCA1 gene. Xenografts of NaAsIII‑preconditioned MCF7 cells (MCF7NaAsIII) into the mammary fat pads of nude mice produced a larger tumor volume compared to tumors from control MCF7 cells and were more refractory to TAM in association with the reduced expression of BRCA1 and ERα, CpG hypermethylation of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and BRCA1, and the increased expression of FOLR1. These cumulative data support the hypothesis that exposure to AsIII may contribute to reducing the efficacy of endocrine therapy against ERα‑positive breast tumors by hampering the expression of ERα and BRCA1 via CpG methylation, respectively of ESR1 and BRCA1.
Publication Date: 2019-01-22
Journal: International journal of oncology

DNMT3A/3B overexpression might be correlated with poor patient survival, hypermethylation and low expression of ESR1/PGR in endometrioid carcinoma: an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas.
DNA methylation is involved in numerous biologic events and associates with transcriptional gene silencing, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. ESR1/PGR frequently undergoes de novo methylation and loss expression in a wide variety of tumors, including breast, colon, lung, and brain tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) loss in endometrial cancer have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A/3B (DNMT3A/3B) in endometrial cancer to investigate whether the methylation catalyzed by DNMT3A/3B contributes to low ER/PR expression. The clinicopathologic information and RNA-Seq expression data of DNMT3A/3B of 544 endometrial cancers were derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) uterine cancer cohort in May 2018. RNA-Seq level of DNMT3A/3B was compared between these clinicopathologic factors with t-test or one-way analysis of variance. DNMT3A/3B was overexpressed in endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) and was even higher in non-endometrioid carcinoma (NEEC) (DNMT3A, EEC vs. NEEC: 37.6% vs. 69.9%, t = -7.440, P < 0.001; DNMT3B, EEC vs. NEEC: 42.4% vs. 72.8%, t = -6.897, P < 0.001). In EEC, DNMT3A overexpression was significantly correlated with the hypermethylation and low expression of the ESR1 and PGR (P < 0.05). The same trend was observed in the DNMT3B overexpression subgroup. In the ESR1/PGR low-expression subgroups, as much as 83.1% of ESR1 and 59.5% of PGR were hypermethylated, which was significantly greater than the ESR1/PGR high-expression subgroups (31.3% and 11.9%, respectively). However, the above phenomena were absent in NEEC, while DNMT3A/3B overexpression, ESR1/PGR hypermethylation, and low ER/PR expression occurred much more often. In univariate analysis, DNMT3A/3B overexpressions were significantly correlated with worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, only DNMT3A was an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P < 0.05). DNMT3A/3B expression increases progressively from EEC to NEEC and is correlated with poor survival. The mechanisms underlying low ER/PR expression might be distinct in EEC vs. NEEC. In EEC, methylation related to DNMT3A/3B overexpression might play a major role in ER/PR downregulation.
Publication Date: 2019-01-08
Journal: Chinese medical journal

Clinical and Genomic Implications of Luminal and Basal Subtypes Across Carcinomas.
Carcinomas originate from epithelial tissues, which have apical (luminal) and basal orientations. The degree of luminal versus basal differentiation in cancer has been shown to be biologically important in some carcinomas and impacts treatment response. Although prior studies have focused on individual cancer types, we used a modified clinical-grade classifier (PAM50) to subtype 8,764 tumors across 22 different carcinomas into luminal A, luminal B, and basal-like tumors. We found that all epithelial tumors demonstrated similar gene expression-based luminal/basal subtypes. As expected, basal-like tumors were associated with increased expression of the basal markers KRT5/6 and KRT14, and luminal-like tumors were associated with increased expression of the luminal markers KRT20. Luminal A tumors consistently had improved outcomes compared with basal across many tumor types, with luminal B tumors falling between the two. Basal tumors had the highest rates of TP53 and RB1 mutations and copy number loss. Luminal breast, cervical, ovarian, and endometrial tumors had increased ESR1 expression, and luminal prostate, breast, cervical, and bladder tumors had increased androgen receptor (AR) expression. Furthermore, luminal B tumors had the highest rates of AR and ESR1 mutations and had increased sensitivity This first pan-carcinoma luminal/basal subtyping across epithelial tumors reveals global similarities across carcinomas in the transcriptome, genome, clinical outcomes, and drug sensitivity, emphasizing the biological and translational importance of these luminal versus basal subtypes.
Publication Date: 2018-12-24
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

DNA Methylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Epigenetic alterations may play a role in the development and behavior of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs). To evaluate the effect of methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on their gene expression and on the behavior of PitNETs. We used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to analyze the DNA-promoter hypermethylation and gene expression of 35 TSGs in 105 PitNETs. We defined functionality, size, and invasiveness of tumors according to their clinical manifestations, Hardy's classification, and MRI invasiveness of the cavernous sinus, respectively. We observed different methylation patterns among PitNET subtypes. The methylation status of TP73 correlated negatively with its gene expression in the overall series (P = 0.013) and in some subtypes. MSH6 and CADM1 showed higher methylation frequency in macroadenomas than in microadenomas in the overall series and in corticotroph PitNETs (all P ≤ 0.053). ESR1 and RASSF1 were more highly methylated in noninvasive than in invasive tumors in the overall series (P = 0.054 and P = 0.031, respectively) and in the gonadotroph subtype (P = 0.055 and P = 0.050, respectively). ESR1 and CASP8 appeared more hypermethylated in functioning than in silent corticotroph tumors (P = 0.034 and P = 0.034, respectively). DNA methylation of TSGs has a selective effect on their gene expression and on the growth and invasiveness of PitNETs. Its involvement in their functionality is biased because all silent operated tumors are macroadenomas, whereas all operated microadenomas are functioning ones. Therefore, the subtypes of PitNETs should be considered different entities.
Publication Date: 2018-11-14
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

A novel somatic mutation of SIN3A detected in breast cancer by whole-exome sequencing enhances cell proliferation through ERα expression.
Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in women, and in nearly two-thirds of cases, the tumors express estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1). Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of 16 breast cancer tissues classified according to ESR1 expression and 12 samples of whole blood, and detected 310 somatic mutations in cancer tissues with high levels of ESR1 expression. Of the somatic mutations validated by a different deep sequencer, a novel nonsense somatic mutation, c.2830 C>T; p.Gln944*, in transcriptional regulator switch-independent 3 family member A (SIN3A) was detected in breast cancer of a patient. Part of the mutant protein localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to the nuclear localization of ERα, and induced a significant increase in ESR1 mRNA. The SIN3A mutation obviously enhanced MCF7 cell proliferation. In tissue sections from the breast cancer patient with the SIN3A c.2830 C>T mutation, cytoplasmic SIN3A localization was detected within the tumor regions where nuclear enlargement was observed. The reduction in SIN3A mRNA correlates with the recurrence of ER-positive breast cancers on Kaplan-Meier plots. These observations reveal that the SIN3A mutation has lost its transcriptional repression function due to its cytoplasmic localization, and that this repression may contribute to the progression of breast cancer.
Publication Date: 2018-10-31
Journal: Scientific reports

breast cancer patients(5)

tumors p(6)

gene esr1(6)

receptor ar(6)

alpha esr1(6)

luminal b(6)

immunohistochemistry ihc(5)

tumor protein(4)

erα esr1(3)

pgr erbb2(3)

50 cases(2)

survival p(2)

respectively p(2)

esr1 esr2(2)