pubmed > ABL1 > tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Asciminib and ponatinib exert synergistic anti-neoplastic effects on CML cells expressing
Ponatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) directed against BCR-ABL1 which is successfully used in patients with
Publication Date: 2021-10-19
Journal: American journal of cancer research

Sequential Development of JAK2V617F Mutation and BCR-ABL1 Fusion in Individual Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: A Linear Clonal Evolution or Parallel Clonal Competition?
Concomitant BCR-ABL1 and JAK2V617F in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is rare, and its pathogenesis and clinical significance are unclear. To investigate the clonal relationship between the 2 genomic alterations, as well as the clinicopathologic impact. Retrospective analysis of MPNs with sequential development of BCR-ABL1 and JAK2V617F. Of 6 cases, 5 had JAK2V617F-positive MPN diagnosed before acquiring BCR-ABL1 years later, and 1 had BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia before JAK2V617F-positive myelofibrosis completely replaced the BCR-ABL1+ clone 1 year after tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Among the former group, treatment for the initial MPN involved hydroxyurea, ruxolitinib, and/or supportive care, and the latency to the development of JAK2V617F ranged from 4 to 13 years (median of 9 years). Four cases showed retention of JAK2V617F, whereas BCR-ABL1 emerged as the major clone, including 2 that exhibited parallel increases in JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 burdens, with both genomic markers exceeding 50%. Three patients received stem cell transplants and demonstrated sustained engraftment, with the genomic markers below detectable levels. Most MPNs with concomitant JAK2V617F and BCR-ABL1 are actually composite MPNs with a "second hit" residing on a different clone. Rare cases demonstrate a subclone harboring a "double-hit" in a background of a JAK2V617F-positive stem line clone. The probability of a "double-hit" with a BCR-ABL1+ stem line clone is probably reduced by effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. The treatment often involves combined kinase inhibitors and/or hydroxyurea, but the outcome is unpredictable; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be the ultimate therapeutic option for this complicated disease.
Publication Date: 2021-09-11
Journal: Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine

BCR-ABL1 transcript doubling time as a predictor for treatment-free remission failure after imatinib discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase.
The doubling time (DT) of the BCR-ABL1 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) transcript level reflects the re-growing fraction of leukaemic cells after discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The present study analyzed monthly DT within six months after imatinib discontinuation in 131 patients. Monthly DT was calculated as x = ln(2)/K, where x is the DT and K is the fold BCR-ABL1 change from the previous value divided by the number of days between each measurement. The optimal DT value was determined as 12·75 days at two months using a recursive partitioning method. The patients were stratified into three groups: the high-risk group (DT<12·75 days but >0, with rapidly proliferating chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells; n = 26) showed the lowest molecular relapse-free survival (mRFS) of 7·7% at 12 months, compared to 53·6% in the intermediate-risk group (DT≥12·75 days, with slowly proliferating CML cells; n = 16) or 90·0% in the low-risk group (DT≤0, i.e., without proliferating CML cells; n = 71; P < 0·001). Monthly assessment of DT helps identify high-risk patients for treatment-free remission failure with an imminent risk of molecular recurrence, and to define low-risk patients who can be spared the frequent monitoring of monthly molecular tests.
Publication Date: 2021-09-09
Journal: British journal of haematology

Profiles of NK cell subsets are associated with successful tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia and changes following interferon treatment.
Recent studies have shown that approximately 50% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy with a sustained deep molecular response (DMR) (BCR-ABL1
Publication Date: 2021-07-20
Journal: Annals of hematology

Dasatinib dose optimisation based on therapeutic drug monitoring reduces pleural effusion rates in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.
Dasatinib is a second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Dasatinib 100 mg per day is associated with an increased risk of pleural effusion (PlEff). We randomly evaluated whether therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may reduce dasatinib-associated significant adverse events (AEs) by 12 months (primary endpoint). Eligible patients started dasatinib at 100 mg per day followed by dasatinib (C)min assessment. Patients considered overdosed [(C)min ≥ 3 nmol/l) were randomised between a dose-reduction strategy (TDM arm) and standard of care (control arm). Out of 287 evaluable patients, 80 patients were randomised. The primary endpoint was not met due to early haematological AEs occurring before effective dose reduction. However, a major reduction in the cumulative incidence of PlEff was observed in the TDM arm compared to the control arm (4% vs. 15%; 11% vs. 35% and 12% vs. 39% at one, two and three years, respectively (P = 0·0094)). Molecular responses were superimposable in all arms. Dasatinib TDM during treatment initiation was feasible and resulted in a significant reduction of the incidence of PlEff in the long run, without impairing molecular responses. (NCT01916785;
Publication Date: 2021-07-02
Journal: British journal of haematology

Optimizing the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in younger and older adults: new drugs and evolving paradigms.
In the past decade, the available treatments for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have rapidly expanded, in parallel with an increased understanding of the genomic features that impact the disease biology and clinical outcomes. With the development of the anti-CD22 antibody-drug conjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin, the CD3-CD19 bispecific T-cell engager antibody blinatumomab, CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and the potent BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ponatinib, the outlook of ALL in both younger and older adults has substantially improved. The availability of highly effective drugs raised important questions concerning the optimal combination and sequence of these agents, their incorporation into frontline regimens, and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this review, we discuss the rapidly evolving paradigms in the treatment of ALL, highlighting both established and effective regimens, as well as promising new therapies that are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. We specifically focus on novel combination regimens in both the frontline and salvage settings that are leading to new standards of care in the treatment of ALL.
Publication Date: 2021-06-27
Journal: Leukemia

GSK-3α Inhibition in Drug-Resistant CML Cells Promotes Susceptibility to NK Cell-Mediated Lysis in an NKG2D- and NKp30-Dependent Manner.
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic lymphocytes that provide early protection against cancer. NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells is triggered by multiple activating receptors that recognize specific ligands expressed on target cells. We previously demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, but not GSK-3α, is a negative regulator of NK cell functions via diverse activating receptors, including NKG2D and NKp30. However, the role of GSK-3 isoforms in the regulation of specific ligands on target cells is poorly understood, which remains a challenge limiting GSK-3 targeting for NK cell-based therapy. Here, we demonstrate that GSK-3α rather than GSK-3β is the primary isoform restraining the expression of NKG2D ligands, particularly ULBP2/5/6, on tumor cells, thereby regulating their susceptibility to NK cells. GSK-3α also regulated the expression of the NKp30 ligand B7-H6, but not the DNAM-1 ligands PVR or nectin-2. This regulation occurred independently of BCR-ABL1 mutation that confers tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mechanistically, an increase in PI3K/Akt signaling in concert with c-Myc was required for ligand upregulation in response to GSK-3α inhibition. Importantly, GSK-3α inhibition improved cancer surveillance by human NK cells in vivo. Collectively, our results highlight the distinct role of GSK-3 isoforms in the regulation of NK cell reactivity against target cells and suggest that GSK-3α modulation could be used to enhance tumor cell susceptibility to NK cells in an NKG2D- and NKp30-dependent manner.
Publication Date: 2021-05-01
Journal: Cancers

H396P mutation in chronic myeloid leukaemia patient on nilotinib - A case report.
The advent of BCR-ABL1-targeted therapy with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), for example, imatinib and nilotinib, marked a turning point in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, a substantial proportion of patients experience primary or secondary disease resistance to TKI. There are multifactorial causes contributing to the treatment failure of which BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutation being the most common. Here, we describe a case of a CML patient with H396P mutation following treatment with nilotinib. A 60-year-old woman presented with abdominal discomfort and hyperleukocytosis. She was diagnosed as CML in the chronic phase with positive BCR-ABL1 transcripts. Due to the failure to obtain an optimal response with imatinib treatment, it was switched to nilotinib. She responded well to nilotinib initially and achieved complete haematological and cytogenetic responses, with undetectable BCR-ABL1 transcripts. However, in 4 years she developed molecular relapse. Mutation analysis which was done 70 months after commencement of nilotinib showed the presence of BCRABL1 kinase domain mutation with nucleotide substitution at position 1187 from Histidine(H) to Proline(P) (H396P). Currently, she is on nilotinib 400mg twice daily. Her latest molecular analysis showed the presence of residual BCR-ABL1 transcripts at 0.22%. This case illustrates the importance of BCR-ABL1 mutation analysis in CML patients with persistent BCR-ABL1 positivity in spite of treatment. Early detection and identification of the type of BCRABL1 mutation are important to guide appropriate treatment options as different mutation will have different sensitivity to TKI.
Publication Date: 2021-04-28
Journal: The Malaysian journal of pathology

Next-generation sequencing improves BCR-ABL1 mutation detection in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutation testing in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients is routinely performed by Sanger sequencing (SS). Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches have been developed that afford greater sensitivity and straightforward discrimination between compound and polyclonal mutations. We performed a study to compare the results of SS and NGS in a consecutive cohort of 171 Ph+ ALL patients. At diagnosis, 0/44 and 3/44 patients were positive for mutations by SS and NGS respectively. Out of 47 patients with haematologic resistance, 45 had mutations according to both methods, but in 25 patients NGS revealed additional mutations undetectable by SS. Out of 80 patients in complete haematologic response but with BCR-ABL1 ≥0·1%, 28 (35%) and 52 (65%) were positive by SS and NGS respectively. Moreover, in 12 patients positive by SS, NGS detected additional mutations. NGS resolved clonal complexity in 34 patients with multiple mutations at the same or different codons and identified 35 compound mutations. Our study demonstrates that, in Ph+ ALL on TKI therapy, NGS enables more accurate assessment of mutation status both in patients who fail therapy and in patients with minimal residual disease above 0·1%.
Publication Date: 2021-01-07
Journal: British journal of haematology

Clinical implications of conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular testing in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era - A review.
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) provides an illustrative disease model for both molecular pathogenesis of cancer and rational drug therapy. Imatinib mesylate (IM), a BCR-ABL1 targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drug, is the first line gold standard drug for CML treatment. Conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA) can identify the standard and variant Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, and any additional complex chromosome abnormalities at diagnosis as well as during treatment course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is especially important for cells of CML patients with inadequate or inferior quality metaphases or those with variant Ph translocations. CCA in conjunction with FISH can serve as powerful tools in all phases of CML including the diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification and monitoring of cytogenetic responses to treatment. Molecular techniques such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used for the detection of BCR-ABL1 transcripts at diagnosis whereas quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) is used at the time of diagnosis as well as during TKI therapy for the quantitation of BCR-ABL1 transcripts to evaluate the molecular response and minimal residual disease (MRD). Despite the excellent treatment results obtained after the introduction of TKI drugs, especially Imatinib mesylate (IM), resistance to TKIs develops in approximately 35% - 40% of CML patients on TKI therapy. Since point mutations in BCR-ABL1 are a common cause of IM resistance, mutation analysis is important in IM resistant patients. Mutations are reliably detected by nested PCR amplification of the translocated ABL1 kinase domain followed by direct sequencing of the entire amplified kinase domain. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of regular and timely CCA, FISH analysis and molecular testing in the diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of therapeutic efficacy, evaluation of MRD and in the detection of BCR-ABL1 kinase mutations which cause therapeutic resistance in adult CML patients.
Publication Date: 2020-12-29
Journal: The Malaysian journal of pathology

Role of BCR-ABL1 isoforms on the prognosis of Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era: A meta-analysis.
BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is the driver mutation of Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL). Although the prognostic value of BCR-ABL1 isoforms in Ph+ ALL patients has been investigated in numerous studies in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era, the results were still conflicting. Hence we performed herein the meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the impact of BCR-ABL1 isoforms on the clinical outcomes of Ph+ ALL patients. Systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases with the data access date up to June 15, 2020. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects models. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the associations. Nine studies with a total number of 1582 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. Combined HRs suggested that p210 was slightly associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS) (HR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72). The overall survival (OS) was not significantly affected (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.92-1.45). In subgroup analyses, the HRs showed a trend toward adverse impact of p210 on clinical outcomes. However, the confidence intervals were not crossing the null value only in a minority of subgroups including Caucasian studies, first-generation TKI treated cohort and transplant cohort. Our findings suggested that p210 might pose a mild adverse impact on the EFS of Ph+ ALL patients. This effect might be compromised by the use of second- or third-generation TKIs. Further studies are needed to verify our conclusions.
Publication Date: 2020-12-19
Journal: PloS one

BCR-ABL1 compound mutants: prevalence, spectrum and correlation with tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in a consecutive series of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia patients analyzed by NGS.
Publication Date: 2020-12-03
Journal: Leukemia

Prognostic significance of a normal karyotype in adult patients with BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.
The occurrence of cryptic Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome translocation is rare in BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1+ ALL) and is of unknown significance in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era. We retrospectively studied a series of adult patients receiving TKI-based therapy to evaluate the prognostic impact of the normal karyotype (NK) (n=22) in BCR-ABL1+ ALL by comparison with the isolated Ph+ karyotype (n=54). There were no statistically significant differences in clinical characteristics and complete remission rate between the two groups. Compared with the isolated Ph+ group, the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group had a higher relapse rate (55.0% versus 29.4%, p=0.044). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly shorter in the NK/BCR-ABL1+ group than in the isolated Ph+ group [median OS: 24.5 versus 48.6 (months), p=0.013; median DFS: 11.0 (months) versus undefined, p=0.008]. The five-year OS and DFS for patients with NK/BCR-ABL1+ were 19.2% and 14.5%, respectively; those for patients with isolated Ph+ were 49.5% and 55.7%, respectively. Thirty-four (44.7%) patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in this study. Among the patients who received allo-HSCT, the median OS and DFS in the NK/BCR-ABL+ group (n=9) were 35.5 and 27.5 months, respectively, while those in the isolated Ph+ group (n=25) were undefined. There was a trend of significant statistical difference in the OS between the two subgroups (p=0.066), but no significant difference in the DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that NK was independently associated with worse OS and DFS in BCR-ABL1+ ALL patients [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.256 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005-5.066), p=0.049; HR 2.711 (95% CI, 1.319-5.573), p=0.007]. Our results suggest that the sub-classification of an NK could be applied in the prognostic assessments of BCR-ABL1+ ALL. In addition, allo-HSCT should be actively performed to improve prognosis in these patients.
Publication Date: 2020-11-19
Journal: Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)

CML - Not only BCR-ABL1 matters.
BCR-ABL1 is in the center of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) pathology, diagnosis and treatment, as confirmed by the success of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. However, additional mechanisms and events, many of which function independently of BCR-ABL1, play important roles, particularly in terms of leukemic stem cell (LSC) persistence, primary and secondary resistance, and disease progression. Promising therapeutic approaches aim to disrupt pathways which mediate LSC survival during successful TKI treatment, in the hope of improving long-term treatment-free-remission and perhaps provide a functional cure for some patients. Over the years through advances in sequencing technology frequent molecular aberrations in addition to BCR-ABL1 have been identified not only in advanced disease but also in chronic phase CML, often affecting epigenetic regulators such as ASXL1, DNMT3A and TET2. Analyses of serial samples have revealed various patterns of clonal evolution with some mutations preceding the BCR-ABL1 acquisition. Such mutations can be considered to be important co-factors in the pathogenesis of CML and could potentially influence therapeutic strategies in the future.
Publication Date: 2020-10-12
Journal: Best practice & research. Clinical haematology

Beneficial tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in a patient with relapsed BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia with CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion.
BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a neoplasm of lymphoblasts committed to the B-cell lineage that lack the BCR-ABL1 translocation but show a pattern of gene expression very similar to that seen in ALL with BCR-ABL1 with poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was diagnosed with common-B-cell-ALL positive for CD10, CD19, CD22, CD79a, CD34, HLA-DR, and TdT in January 2017, and achieved complete remission (CR) with induction therapy, followed by consolidation therapy and maintenance therapy. In March 2020, 6 months after the completion of maintenance therapy, she relapsed. Inotuzumab ozogamicin (IO) was administered, and on day 28, bone marrow evaluation showed a morphologic CR. She had an HLA-identical sibling, and transplantation in her 2nd CR was planned. Because her ALL had been identified as BCR-ABL1-like ALL with CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion, she was treated with imatinib for 2 months accompanied by 2 intrathecal methotrexate therapies, and 1 course of L-asparaginase, vincristine, and prednisolone in an outpatient setting. MRD analysis revealed potent efficacy of 2 months imatinib therapy; IgH MRD decreased from 1 × 10
Publication Date: 2020-09-21
Journal: International journal of hematology

Integrative Genomic Analysis Reveals Cancer-Associated Gene Mutations in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Resistance or Intolerance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.
While the acquisition of mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain (KD) has been identified as a common mechanism behind tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance, recent genetic studies have revealed that patients with TKI resistance or intolerance frequently harbor one or more genetic alterations implicated in myeloid malignancies. This suggests that additional mutations other than ABL1 KD mutations might contribute to disease progression. We performed targeted-capture sequencing of 127 known and putative cancer-related genes of 63 patients with CML using next-generation sequencing (NGS), including 42 patients with TKI resistance and 21 with TKI intolerance. The differences in the number of mutations between groups had no statistical significance. This could be explained in part by not all of the patients having achieved major molecular remission in the early period as expected. Overall, 66 mutations were identified in 96.8% of the patients, most frequently in the Our data suggested that the
Publication Date: 2020-09-19
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on a mouse chronic myeloid leukemia model and chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder caused by constitutively active BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase resulting from the t(9;22) Philadelphia translocation. Imatinib, a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is a revolutionary molecular target inhibitor for CML. However, leukemic stem cells (LSCs) eventually become resistant to imatinib and thereby cause relapse. The next-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI dasatinib is also unable to eliminate CML LSCs. On the other hand, the third-generation BCR-ABL1 TKI ponatinib is not well studied in terms of its efficacy on CML LSCs. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of ponatinib against CML LSC-containing lin
Publication Date: 2020-09-11
Journal: Experimental hematology

Early BCR-ABL1 kinetics are predictive of subsequent achievement of treatment-free remission in chronic myeloid leukemia.
With treatment-free remission (TFR) rapidly becoming the ultimate goal of therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there is a need to develop strategies to maximize sustained TFR by improving our understanding of its key determinants. Chronic-phase CML patients attempting TFR were evaluated to identify the impact of multiple variables on the probability of sustained TFR. Early molecular response dynamics were included as a predictive variable, assessed by calculating the patient-specific halving time of BCR-ABL1 after commencing tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Overall, 115 patients attempted TFR and had ≥12 months of follow-up. The probability of sustained TFR, defined as remaining in major molecular response off TKI therapy for 12 months, was 55%. The time taken for the BCR-ABL1 value to halve was the strongest independent predictor of sustained TFR: 80% in patients with a halving time of <9.35 days (first quartile) compared with only 4% if the halving time was >21.85 days (last quartile) (P < .001). The e14a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript type and duration of TKI exposure before attempting TFR were also independent predictors of sustained TFR. However, the BCR-ABL1 value measured at 3 months of TKI was not an independent predictor of sustained TFR. A more rapid initial BCR-ABL1 decline after commencing TKI also correlated with an increased likelihood of achieving TFR eligibility. The association between sustained TFR and the time taken for BCR-ABL1 to halve after commencing TKI was validated using an independent dataset. These data support the critical importance of the initial kinetics of BCR-ABL1 decline for long-term outcomes.
Publication Date: 2020-09-02
Journal: Blood

Analysis of chronic myeloid leukaemia during deep molecular response by genomic PCR: a traffic light stratification model with impact on treatment-free remission.
This work investigated patient-specific genomic BCR-ABL1 fusions as markers of measurable residual disease (MRD) in chronic myeloid leukaemia, with a focus on relevance to treatment-free remission (TFR) after achievement of deep molecular response (DMR) on tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. DNA and mRNA BCR-ABL1 measurements by qPCR were compared in 2189 samples (129 patients) and by digital PCR in 1279 sample (62 patients). A high correlation was found at levels of disease above MR4, but there was a poor correlation for samples during DMR. A combination of DNA and RNA MRD measurements resulted in a better prediction of molecular relapse-free survival (MRFS) after TKI stop (n = 17) or scheduled interruption (n = 25). At 18 months after treatment cessation, patients with stopped or interrupted TKI therapy who were DNA negative/RNA negative during DMR maintenance (green group) had an MRFS of 80% and 100%, respectively, compared with those who were DNA positive/RNA negative (MRFS = 57% and 67%, respectively; yellow group) or DNA positive/RNA positive (MRFS = 20% for both cohorts; red group). Thus, we propose a "traffic light" stratification as a TFR predictor based on DNA and mRNA BCR-ABL1 measurements during DMR maintenance before TKI cessation.
Publication Date: 2020-05-31
Journal: Leukemia

Optimal Response in a Patient With CML Expressing
The Philadelphia chromosome is considered the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, although most patients with CML are diagnosed with the e13a2 or e14a2 breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson 1 (ABL1) fusion transcripts, about 5% of them carry rare BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts, such as e19a2, e8a2, e13a3, e14a3, e1a3 and e6a2. In particular, the e6a2 fusion transcript has been associated with clinically aggressive disease frequently presenting in accelerated or blast crisis phases; there is limited evidence on the efficacy of front-line second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for this genotype. We describe a case of atypical BCR-ABL1 e6a2 fusion transcript in a 46-year-old woman with CML. The use of primers recognizing more distant exons from the common BCR-ABL1 breakpoint region correctly identified the atypical BCR-ABL1 e16a2 fusion transcript. Treatment with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib was effective in this patient expressing the atypical e6a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript.
Publication Date: 2020-05-02
Journal: In vivo (Athens, Greece)

bcr-abl1 ≤ 0 1(2)

kinase inhibitor treatment(6)

bcr-abl1 transcript level(5)

q34 q11 2(2)

kd mutations(6)

philadelphia ph(5)

response mr(5)

region bcr(5)

phase cml-cp(5)

chromosome-positive ph(5)

mmr bcr-abl1(5)

leukemia bcr-abl1(4)

ph acute(3)

asxl1 dnmt3a(2)